Saturday, November 15, 2014

PLANETARY TREMORS: Strong 5.4 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Kyrgyzstan - At Least 200 Homes Seriously Damaged!

November 15, 2014 - KYRGYZSTAN
- A strong earthquake of magnitude 5.4 struck the south shore of Kyrgyzstan's Lake Issyk Kul on Friday, the U.S. Geological Survey said.

It said the quake, which struck at 7:24 a.m. (8.24 p.m. ET), was very shallow, at a depth of only 6.2 miles (10 km), which would have amplified its effect.

USGS earthquake shakemap intensity.

The epicenter was located 8 miles (13 km) east of the town of Kadzhi-Say and 149 miles (240 km) east-southeast of the capital Bishkek.

A magnitude 5.4 quake is capable of causing considerable damage and this earthquake has caused serious damage in the Lake region of Kyrgyzstan.

- School classes have been canceled
- Intensity VII has been felt in various communities (Kadji-Sai, Bokonbaevo, Tosor, Ton and Tamga).
- There are no reports of casualties at this point.
- The epicenter of the earthquake was 6 km north- east of Kazhi-Sai town, 60 km North-East of Ton village.

- Reuters | Earthquake Report.

Tectonic Summary - Seismotectonics of the Himalaya and Vicinity

Seismicity in the Himalaya dominantly results from the continental collision of the India and Eurasia plates, which are converging at a relative rate of 40-50 mm/yr. Northward underthrusting of India beneath Eurasia generates numerous earthquakes and consequently makes this area one of the most seismically hazardous regions on Earth. The surface expression of the plate boundary is marked by the foothills of the north-south trending Sulaiman Range in the west, the Indo-Burmese Arc in the east and the east-west trending Himalaya Front in the north of India.

The India-Eurasia plate boundary is a diffuse boundary, which in the region near the north of India, lies within the limits of the Indus-Tsangpo (also called the Yarlung-Zangbo) Suture to the north and the Main Frontal Thrust to the south. The Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone is located roughly 200 km north of the Himalaya Front and is defined by an exposed ophiolite chain along its southern margin. The narrow (less than 200km) Himalaya Front includes numerous east-west trending, parallel structures. This region has the highest rates of seismicity and largest earthquakes in the Himalaya region, caused mainly by movement on thrust faults. Examples of significant earthquakes, in this densely populated region, caused by reverse slip movement include the 1934 M8.1 Bihar, the 1905 M7.5 Kangra and the 2005 M7.6 Kashmir earthquakes. The latter two resulted in the highest death tolls for Himalaya earthquakes seen to date, together killing over 100,000 people and leaving millions homeless. The largest instrumentally recorded Himalaya earthquake occurred on 15th August 1950 in Assam, eastern India. This M8.6 right-lateral, strike-slip, earthquake was widely felt over a broad area of central Asia, causing extensive damage to villages in the epicentral region.

USGS tectonic plates for the region.

The Tibetan Plateau is situated north of the Himalaya, stretching approximately 1000km north-south and 2500km east-west, and is geologically and tectonically complex with several sutures which are hundreds of kilometer-long and generally trend east-west. The Tibetan Plateau is cut by a number of large (greater than 1000km) east-west trending, left-lateral, strike-slip faults, including the long Kunlun, Haiyuan, and the Altyn Tagh. Right-lateral, strike-slip faults (comparable in size to the left-lateral faults), in this region include the Karakorum, Red River, and Sagaing. Secondary north-south trending normal faults also cut the Tibetan Plateau. Thrust faults are found towards the north and south of the Tibetan Plateau. Collectively, these faults accommodate crustal shortening associated with the ongoing collision of the India and Eurasia plates, with thrust faults accommodating north south compression, and normal and strike-slip accommodating east-west extension.

Along the western margin of the Tibetan Plateau, in the vicinity of south-eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan, the India plate translates obliquely relative to the Eurasia plate, resulting in a complex fold-and-thrust belt known as the Sulaiman Range. Faulting in this region includes strike-slip, reverse-slip and oblique-slip motion and often results in shallow, destructive earthquakes. The active, left-lateral, strike-slip Chaman fault is the fastest moving fault in the region. In 1505, a segment of the Chaman fault near Kabul, Afghanistan, ruptured causing widespread destruction. In the same region the more recent 30 May 1935, M7.6 Quetta earthquake, which occurred in the Sulaiman Range in Pakistan, killed between 30,000 and 60,000 people.

On the north-western side of the Tibetan Plateau, beneath the Pamir-Hindu Kush Mountains of northern Afghanistan, earthquakes occur at depths as great as 200 km as a result of remnant lithospheric subduction. The curved arc of deep earthquakes found in the Hindu Kush Pamir region indicates the presence of a lithospheric body at depth, thought to be remnants of a subducting slab. Cross-sections through the Hindu Kush region suggest a near vertical northerly-dipping subducting slab, whereas cross-sections through the nearby Pamir region to the east indicate a much shallower dipping, southerly subducting slab. Some models suggest the presence of two subduction zones; with the Indian plate being subducted beneath the Hindu Kush region and the Eurasian plate being subducted beneath the Pamir region. However, other models suggest that just one of the two plates is being subducted and that the slab has become contorted and overturned in places.

Shallow crustal earthquakes also occur in this region near the Main Pamir Thrust and other active Quaternary faults. The Main Pamir Thrust, north of the Pamir Mountains, is an active shortening structure. The northern portion of the Main Pamir Thrust produces many shallow earthquakes, whereas its western and eastern borders display a combination of thrust and strike-slip mechanisms. On the 18 February 1911, the M7.4 Sarez earthquake ruptured in the Central Pamir Mountains, killing numerous people and triggering a landside, which blocked the Murghab River.

Further north, the Tian Shan is a seismically active intra-continental mountain belt, which extends 2500 km in an ENE-WNW orientation north of the Tarim Basin. This belt is defined by numerous east-west trending thrust faults, creating a compressional basin and range landscape. It is generally thought that regional stresses associated with the collision of the India and Eurasia plates are responsible for faulting in the region. The region has had three major earthquakes (greater than M7.6) at the start of the 20th Century, including the 1902 Atushi earthquake, which killed an estimated 5,000 people. The range is cut through in the west by the 700-km-long, northwest-southeast striking, Talas-Ferghana active right-lateral, strike-slip fault system. Though the system has produced no major earthquakes in the last 250 years, paleo-seismic studies indicate that it has the potential to produce M7.0+ earthquakes and it is thought to represent a significant hazard.

The northern portion of the Tibetan Plateau itself is largely dominated by the motion on three large left-lateral, strike-slip fault systems; the Altyn Tagh, Kunlun and Haiyuan. The Altyn Tagh fault is the longest of these strike slip faults and it is thought to accommodate a significant portion of plate convergence. However, this system has not experienced significant historical earthquakes, though paleoseismic studies show evidence of prehistoric M7.0-8.0 events. Thrust faults link with the Altyn Tagh at its eastern and western termini. The Kunlun Fault, south of the Altyn Tagh, is seismically active, producing large earthquakes such as the 8th November 1997, M7.6 Manyi earthquake and the 14th November 2001, M7.8 Kokoxili earthquake. The Haiyuan Fault, in the far north-east, generated the 16 December 1920, M7.8 earthquake that killed approximately 200,000 people and the 22 May 1927 M7.6 earthquake that killed 40,912.

The Longmen Shan thrust belt, along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, is an important structural feature and forms a transitional zone between the complexly deformed Songpan-Garze Fold Belt and the relatively undeformed Sichuan Basin. On 12 May 2008, the thrust belt produced the reverse slip, M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, killing over 87,000 people and causing billions of US dollars in damages and landslides which dammed several rivers and lakes.

Southeast of the Tibetan Plateau are the right-lateral, strike-slip Red River and the left-lateral, strike-slip Xiangshuihe-Xiaojiang fault systems. The Red River Fault experienced large scale, left-lateral ductile shear during the Tertiary period before changing to its present day right-lateral slip rate of approximately 5 mm/yr. This fault has produced several earthquakes greater than M6.0 including the 4 January 1970, M7.5 earthquake in Tonghai which killed over 10,000 people. Since the start of the 20th century, the Xiangshuihe-Xiaojiang Fault system has generated several M7.0+ earthquakes including the M7.5 Luhuo earthquake which ruptured on the 22 April 1973. Some studies suggest that due to the high slip rate on this fault, future large earthquakes are highly possible along the 65km stretch between Daofu and Qianning and the 135km stretch that runs through Kangding.

Shallow earthquakes within the Indo-Burmese Arc, predominantly occur on a combination of strike-slip and reverse faults, including the Sagaing, Kabaw and Dauki faults. Between 1930 and 1956, six M7.0+ earthquakes occurred near the right-lateral Sagaing Fault, resulting in severe damage in Myanmar including the generation of landslides, liquefaction and the loss of 610 lives. Deep earthquakes (200km) have also been known to occur in this region, these are thought to be due to the subduction of the eastwards dipping, India plate, though whether subduction is currently active is debated. Within the pre-instrumental period, the large Shillong earthquake occurred on the 12 June 1897, causing widespread destruction. - USGS.

PLANETARY TREMORS: Strong Magnitude 5.6 Earthquake Strikes Peruvian Coast Near Lima - Rocked Buildings For Several Seconds, Disrupts Cellphone Services!

USGS earthquake location map.

November 15, 2014 - PERU
- A 5.6 magnitude earthquake struck the Pacific near the Peruvian coast late on Friday, rocking buildings for several seconds in the capital Lima and disrupting cellphone services briefly.

There were no immediate reports of damages or injuries.

The quake hit 7.45 miles (12 kilometers) southwest of Mala, a coastal town near Lima, at a depth of 28.8 miles (46.4 kilometers), according to the U.S. Geological Survey.

USGS earthquake shakemap intensity map.

Peru's Geophysical Institute, which measures earthquakes on the Richter scale, initially reported a magnitude of 5.8.

Peru's Navy said on Twitter that the quake did not trigger tsunami alerts.  - Reuters.

Tectonic Summary - Seismotectonics of South America (Nazca Plate Region)

The South American arc extends over 7,000 km, from the Chilean margin triple junction offshore of southern Chile to its intersection with the Panama fracture zone, offshore of the southern coast of Panama in Central America. It marks the plate boundary between the subducting Nazca plate and the South America plate, where the oceanic crust and lithosphere of the Nazca plate begin their descent into the mantle beneath South America. The convergence associated with this subduction process is responsible for the uplift of the Andes Mountains, and for the active volcanic chain present along much of this deformation front. Relative to a fixed South America plate, the Nazca plate moves slightly north of eastwards at a rate varying from approximately 80 mm/yr in the south to approximately 65 mm/yr in the north. Although the rate of subduction varies little along the entire arc, there are complex changes in the geologic processes along the subduction zone that dramatically influence volcanic activity, crustal deformation, earthquake generation and occurrence all along the western edge of South America.

Most of the large earthquakes in South America are constrained to shallow depths of 0 to 70 km resulting from both crustal and interplate deformation. Crustal earthquakes result from deformation and mountain building in the overriding South America plate and generate earthquakes as deep as approximately 50 km. Interplate earthquakes occur due to slip along the dipping interface between the Nazca and the South American plates. Interplate earthquakes in this region are frequent and often large, and occur between the depths of approximately 10 and 60 km. Since 1900, numerous magnitude 8 or larger earthquakes have occurred on this subduction zone interface that were followed by devastating tsunamis, including the 1960 M9.5 earthquake in southern Chile, the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in the world. Other notable shallow tsunami-generating earthquakes include the 1906 M8.5 earthquake near Esmeraldas, Ecuador, the 1922 M8.5 earthquake near Coquimbo, Chile, the 2001 M8.4 Arequipa, Peru earthquake, the 2007 M8.0 earthquake near Pisco, Peru, and the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake located just north of the 1960 event.

USGS plate tectonics for the region.

Large intermediate-depth earthquakes (those occurring between depths of approximately 70 and 300 km) are relatively limited in size and spatial extent in South America, and occur within the Nazca plate as a result of internal deformation within the subducting plate. These earthquakes generally cluster beneath northern Chile and southwestern Bolivia, and to a lesser extent beneath northern Peru and southern Ecuador, with depths between 110 and 130 km. Most of these earthquakes occur adjacent to the bend in the coastline between Peru and Chile. The most recent large intermediate-depth earthquake in this region was the 2005 M7.8 Tarapaca, Chile earthquake.

Earthquakes can also be generated to depths greater than 600 km as a result of continued internal deformation of the subducting Nazca plate. Deep-focus earthquakes in South America are not observed from a depth range of approximately 300 to 500 km. Instead, deep earthquakes in this region occur at depths of 500 to 650 km and are concentrated into two zones: one that runs beneath the Peru-Brazil border and another that extends from central Bolivia to central Argentina. These earthquakes generally do not exhibit large magnitudes. An exception to this was the 1994 Bolivian earthquake in northwestern Bolivia. This M8.2 earthquake occurred at a depth of 631 km, which was until recently the largest deep-focus earthquake instrumentally recorded (superseded in May 2013 by a M8.3 earthquake 610 km beneath the Sea of Okhotsk, Russia), and was felt widely throughout South and North America.

Subduction of the Nazca plate is geometrically complex and impacts the geology and seismicity of the western edge of South America. The intermediate-depth regions of the subducting Nazca plate can be segmented into five sections based on their angle of subduction beneath the South America plate. Three segments are characterized by steeply dipping subduction; the other two by near-horizontal subduction. The Nazca plate beneath northern Ecuador, southern Peru to northern Chile, and southern Chile descend into the mantle at angles of 25° to 30°. In contrast, the slab beneath southern Ecuador to central Peru, and under central Chile, is subducting at a shallow angle of approximately 10° or less. In these regions of “flat-slab” subduction, the Nazca plate moves horizontally for several hundred kilometers before continuing its descent into the mantle, and is shadowed by an extended zone of crustal seismicity in the overlying South America plate. Although the South America plate exhibits a chain of active volcanism resulting from the subduction and partial melting of the Nazca oceanic lithosphere along most of the arc, these regions of inferred shallow subduction correlate with an absence of volcanic activity. - USGS.

ICE AGE NOW: Snowstorm To Disrupt Travel In U.S. Midwest, Northeast - Snow, Fresh Arctic Cold Heads To Texas, Oklahoma; Season’s First Storm Dumps 4 Feet Of Snow On Wisconsin Town; Michigan Town Receives 1 Month's Snow In 1 Day!

November 15, 2014 - UNITED STATES
- Part of a cross-country storm will affect the Midwest Sunday night then the interior Northeast during Monday with a swath of snow and rain, followed by a freeze-up in some areas. A storm that affected the Northwest late this week and will affect the Rockies and Plains this weekend will be re-energized as it reaches the eastern third of the nation and grabs Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic moisture.

Snowstorm to Disrupt Travel in Midwest, Northeast

The storm will deposit snow or a wintry mix in the Tennessee and Ohio valleys Sunday night, including in the cities of Memphis and Nashville, as well as Lexington, Kentucky.

The storm will swing northeastward moving into the central Appalachians, the mid-Atlantic and New England by Monday.

Enough snow could fall on part of the I-40, I-64, I-79, I-80, I-81, I-87 and I-90 corridors to make roads slippery during all or part of the storm.

According to AccuWeather Chief Meteorologist Elliot Abrams, "As cold as it is now in the Interstate-95 swath from Washington, D.C., to New York City and Boston, it will warm up and rain with the storm on Monday."

In portions of the central and northern Appalachians, the details are complex with some areas receiving snow on the front end and tail end of the storm.

The change to rain will not reach all of the Appalachians. It is possible that the storm is all snow in the swath from Cincinnati to Pittsburgh, Syracuse, New York, and Burlington, Vermont.

On the northwest flank of the storm, a narrow band of moderate snow is possible with snow totals on the order of 3-6 inches.

Fast movement of the storm will limit the duration of the precipitation, including snow, so that snowfall over 6 inches is unlikely to occur over a broad area.

Many locations that have all snow or part-snow, part-rain should receive a couple of inches or less.

While there is a chance the rain ends as a period of snow in the I-95 Northeast corridor, from Washington, D.C., to Philadelphia, New York City and Boston, the rain is more likely to end before the cold air sweeps in.

"It will be a race between cold air and dry air in the I-95 Northeast near the end of the storm, but most often in a storm tracking in this manner, dry air usually wins out with rain ending, followed by clearing," Abrams said.

The storm will ride a new wave of cold air forecast to sweep across the Central and Eastern states.

The coldest air of the season so far will move in following the storm in the Midwest and East. Temperatures that can trump the cold conditions experienced this past week.

People from the Midwest to northern New England should not waste time clearing off the snow or removing standing water. Wet and slushy areas will freeze in the wake of the storm.

During the first part of the coming week, actual nighttime and early morning temperatures will plunge below zero in parts of the Upper Midwest and into the teens in the Ohio and Tennessee valleys.

By Tuesday, AccuWeather RealFeel® temperatures will be in the single digits and teens during much of the daylight hours from the Great Lakes region to the interior Northeast and in the 20s farther south over the Midwest and along much of the Atlantic Seaboard from the Carolinas to southern New England.

Bands of heavy lake-effect snow will continue over the Upper Midwest and will resume in the wake of the storm over the lower Great Lakes and central Appalachians Monday night and Tuesday. Given the magnitude of the cold air moving in next week, there is the potential for some areas to receive between 1 and 3 feet of snow from lake-effect.

Snow, Fresh Arctic Cold Heads to Texas, Oklahoma

A January-like storm will drop south into the southern Rockies and Plains during the last half of the weekend and may result in disruptions to travel and daily activities.

This storm originated over the Pacific Ocean and brought a foot or more of snowfall to the central Rockies. Gusty winds will create areas of blowing and drifting snow and reduced visibility in the mountains.

A swath of snow will spread south into northern New Mexico, far southern Kansas, northern Oklahoma and the panhandle of Texas. This snow will make for slippery travel along I-27 and I-40 in the region, including at Amarillo, Texas, and Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma.

The heaviest snow is expected to fall in the higher elevations of New Mexico. Ski resorts that are set to open later in the month will benefit greatly from this snow event.

The initial surge of arctic air plummeted temperatures dramatically across the region as it dove south, as shown below.

RealFeel® temperatures in the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma will be 15-25 degrees colder than what is normal for this time of year through the last half of the weekend and into start of the week. Low temperatures in the early morning hours will dip into the teens in many locations.

Latest indications point toward this cold blast quickly releasing its grip on the southern Plains. Temperatures will begin to rebound as soon as Tuesday.

After impacting the southern Plains, the re-energized storm will bring areas of snow, rain or rain changing to snow in from the middle Mississippi Valley to the Northeast that can be followed by a freeze-up and slippery travel in many areas for the first part of the new week.

- AccuWeather.

Season’s First Storm Dumps 4 Feet Of Snow On Wisconsin Town

The winter blast that dumped up to 17 inches of snow in Minnesota earlier this week left much more impressive totals across the eastern border.

Due to lake-effect snow from Lake Superior, communities in northern Wisconsin have seen up to 4 feet of snow since the flakes started falling on Monday.

Winter's first blast of snow is one thing. But 4 feet?

The National Weather Service in Duluth says the town of Gile, in northeastern Wisconsin, saw 50.1 inches of snow.

That’s more than 4 feet.

Lake-effect snow happens when cold winds blow across the surface of a warmer lake, and pick up moisture.

That moisture then freezes in the wind, and then falls as snow where the wind takes it. - CBS Minnesota.

Michigan Town Receives 1 Month's Snow  In 1 Day

For those who have been asking whether the unusually cold Great Lakes will reduce the amount of lake effect snow the region gets this winter, I think we just got the answer.

Not when a massive cold wave hits the U.S. so early in the season.

Photo of snowstorm in progress Nov. 13, 2014, courtesy of the Sault Evening News.

The current cold wave over the U.S. has dumped 2 to 4 feet of mostly lake-effect snow over scattered locations in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. My home town of Sault Ste. Marie is waking up to 2 feet of new snow this morning, most of which fell yesterday. This is more than the average snowfall for the whole month of November, which is only 16 inches. The Ishpeming, Mi area has up to 3 feet on the ground this morning.

The amount of lake effect snow is a direct measure of how much heat is being lost by the Great Lakes. Two NOAA buoys in the middle of Lake Superior show that the water has already cooled to the magic value of 39 deg. F, the maximum density point for fresh water where the lake water begins to “turn over”. Last winter’s cold led to scattered reports of ice until almost July. I took the accompanying photo of lake shore ice on June 17 near Munising, MI.

Ice pile several feet thick on the south shore of Lake Superior, June 17, 2014.

For local residents hoping for a quick return to normal weather, the latest 10-day air mass temperature forecast animation shows any break in the frigid conditions is at least a week away. And since the Lakes are starting out so cold already, if this winter is anywhere close to being as cold as last winter, the Great Lakes could be in for record ice cover — again. - Dr. Roy Spencer.

SIGNS IN THE HEAVENS: "These Things Are Just Humongous" - Monster Galaxy Almost As Old As The Universe Creating Stars 1,000 Times Faster Than The Milky Way; Produces 5 Of Our Suns Daily; 1,800 Solar Masses Annually!

Image credits: Credit: B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF

November 15, 2014 - SPACE
- The Milky Way galaxy – our own cosmic neighborhood – forms one star the mass of Earth’s own sun each year. Massive AzTEC-3, the second-most-distant one of its kind known to humanity, produces about five of our suns each Earth day, churning out a total of 1,800 solar masses annually. Such ancient massive star-bursting galaxies can be found by astronomers using modern, mountaintop telescopes like the National Science Foundation-funded Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) telescope in Chile. This exceptional galaxy, which at present day is only slightly younger than the 13.8 billion-year-old universe, is named after the AzTEC-millimeter-wave camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope – through which it was initially found.

“These things are just humongous,” said Dominik Riechers, Cornell assistant professor of astronomy. “That’s why we call them ‘monsters.’ Essentially, thanks to telescopes like the ALMA, we’re looking back in time to the childhood, the toddler years of the universe, and are trying to discern how these galaxies form.”Squinting close to the beginning of time, Riechers, discovered an association of gas-rich galaxies near the infancy of cosmic time. It’s an early epoch – some 12.7 billion years ago – telling a tale that revolves around an exceptionally dusty galaxy called AzTEC-3.

“AzTEC-3 is a massive galaxy that already contains billions of stars at this early epoch, but has the potential to form many more by present day. It produces a thousand times more stars each year than what our own Milky Way galaxy produces,” said Riechers. “Think about a star factory that puts out 50 billion objects the mass of our sun.

The NASA image at the top of the page shows the formation of a galaxy during the first 2bn years of the universe. The supercomputer-generated image displays hydrogen gas in grey, young stars appearing in blue, and older stars as red. The simulation reveals that gas flows into galaxies along filaments akin to cosmic bendy, or swirly, straws.

AzTEC-3, together with its gang of calmer galaxies may represent the best evidence yet that large galaxies grow from the merger of smaller ones in the early Universe, a process known as hierarchical merging.

New ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) data reveals that AzTEC-3 is a very compact, highly disturbed galaxy that is bursting with new stars at close to its theoretically predicted maximum limit and is surrounded by a population of more normal, but also actively star-forming galaxies," said Riechers, lead author of a new paper published today  on Nov. 10 in the Astrophysical Journal. "This particular grouping of galaxies represents an important milestone in the evolution of our Universe: the formation of a galaxy cluster and the early assemblage of large, mature galaxies."

In the early Universe, starburst galaxies like AzTEC-3 were forming new stars at a monstrous pace fueled by the enormous quantities of star-forming material they devoured and by merging with other adolescent galaxies. Over billions of years, these mergers continued, eventually producing the large galaxies and clusters of galaxies we see in the Universe today.

Evidence for this hierarchical model of galaxy evolution has been mounting, but these latest ALMA data show a strikingly clear picture of the all-important first steps along this process when the Universe was only 8 percent of its current age.

"One of the primary science goals of ALMA is the detection and detailed study of galaxies throughout cosmic time," said Chris Carilli, an astronomer with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, New Mexico. "These new observations help us put the pieces together by showing the first steps of a galaxy merger in the early Universe."

AzTEC-3, which is located in the direction of the constellation Sextans, is what astronomers refer to as a submillimeter galaxy, since it shines brightly in that portion of the spectrum, but is remarkably dim at optical and infrared wavelengths. This is due to light from its stars being absorbed by dust in the star-forming environments of the galaxy and then re-emitted by the dust at far-infrared wavelengths. As this light travels across the cosmos, it becomes stretched due to the expansion of the Universe, so by the time it arrives at Earth, the far-infrared light has shifted to the submillimeter/millimeter portion of the spectrum.

Artist's impression below of the protocluster observed by ALMA shows the central AzTEC-3 along with its labeled cohorts of smaller, less active galaxies. New ALMA observations suggest that AzTEC-3 recently merged with another young galaxy and that the whole system represents the first steps toward forming a galaxy cluster.

Image credits: Credit: B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF
ALMA, with its remarkable sensitivity and high resolving power, was able to observe this system at these wavelengths in unprecedented detail. It also was able to study, for the first time, the star-forming gas in three additional, extremely distant members of an emerging galactic protocluster.

The ALMA data revealed that the three smaller, more normal galaxies are indeed producing stars from their gas at a relatively calm and steady pace. Unlike its neighbors, however, AzTEC-3 is burning through star-forming fuel at breakneck speed. Indeed, AzTEC-3 appears to form more new stars each day than our Milky Way galaxy forms in an entire year -- outpacing the normal galaxies in its proximity by about a factor of 100.

The researchers also observed very little rotation in AzTEC-3's dust and gas -- suggesting that something had disrupted its motion. Taken together, these two characteristics are strong indications that AzTEC-3 recently merged with another galaxy.

"AzTEC-3 is currently undergoing an extreme, but short-lived event," said Riechers. "This is perhaps the most violent phase in its evolution, leading to a star formation activity level that is very rare at its cosmic epoch."

Artist's impression below of the protocluster shows the AzTEC-3 along with its labeled cohorts of smaller, less active galaxies. New ALMA observations suggest that AzTEC-3 recently merged with another young galaxy and that the whole system represents the first steps toward forming a galaxy cluster.

Image credits: Credit: B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF
The astronomers believe that AzTEC-3 and the other nearby galaxies appear to be part of the same system, but are not yet gravitationally bound into a clearly defined cluster. This is why the astronomers refer to them collectively as a protocluster.

The starburst galaxy was originally observed with and named after the AzTEC millimeter-wavelength camera, which was installed at the time on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, a single-dish radio telescope located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Only with ALMA has it become possible to understand the nature of this exceptional galaxy and those in its immediate environment. - Daily Galaxy.

RATTLE & HUM: The Latest Incidents Of Unexplained Loud Booms Heard Across The United States - Massive Mystery "Boom" Felt Across Alabama And Northwest Atlanta Neighborhoods Plagued By Mysterious Noise?!

November 15, 2014 - UNITED STATES
- The following constitutes several of the latest reports of mysterious loud booms heard across the United States.

Massive Mystery 'Boom' Felt Across Alabama

At approximately 3:15pm, News 5 began receiving dozens of phone calls from viewers across the Gulf Coast who said they heard or felt a "loud boom."

This was confirmed by News 5 crew members who experienced the same thing.

As of now, the source of this noise/tremor is unknown at this time.

We can confirm it was not a minor earthquake. The USGS reported no such activity for southern Alabama or the Gulf of Mexico.

We have phone calls in to NAS Pensacola as to whether there were any aircraft operating in the skies above southern Alabama, but have yet to receive a call back.

WATCH: "Boom" felt across Viewing Area.

Here's a strong theory from Chief Meteorologist, Alan Sealls...

The booms and shaking people may have felt today in the News 5 area wasn't weather. The sky was clear so there was no rain or thunder. Your free News 5 weather app showed that no earthquakes were detected from the USGS. You would have had no reason to look at a radar today but if you were looking at a high resolution radar you might have seen some lines that looked like rain- but it wasn't raining today.

The shapes and textures I saw look like something called chaff, being released by fast moving aircraft. Chaff is tiny metallic strips dropped from aircraft to either calibrate or “fool” radars. This is something the military does from time to time but rarely do they announce it. I will only guess that today there was some sort of military exercise that involved jets going supersonic and creating booms. With our cold, dense air in place, sound travels farther. - WKRG.

Northwest Atlanta neighborhoods plagued by mysterious noise

A mysterious noise is plaguing a northwest Atlanta community and keeping some neighbors up at night.

"It sounds like a tornado siren roughly," one neighbor said.

Since it started about six weeks ago, neighbors in three different developments along Marietta Road in northwest Atlanta say they've heard the noise.

"It can go off at 1 a.m., 2 a.m., 3 a.m. and you don't know what it can be," said Wendell Burks.

"We are hearing sirens, maybe 10 times a day, late at night, at all hours," said Anna Wagner.

WATCH: Mysterious noise plaguing northwest Atlanta neighborhoods.

When Channel 2 Action News visited the neighborhood Sunday, we heard the noise five or six times.

Atlanta Councilwoman Felicia Moore says her Facebook page is blowing up with concerns from constituents. Moore estimated the sounds can be heard by more than 1,000 neighbors in the Dupont Commons, Adams Crossing and Hills Park neighborhoods.

"I'm irritated, and I'm taking my irritation to the rail yard and they are saying they don't know what is going on, so we are stuck right now trying to figure out where it is coming from, who is responsible and how we can stop it," Moore told Channel 2's Rachel Stockman.

Some neighbors report the sound is coming from the nearby CSX railroad. A representative with CSX says they are currently investigating.

"It is a mystery. We've had someone contact CSX, they claim nothing has changed over at the yard. We'd like to get to the bottom of it," Burks said. - WSBTV.

DISASTER PRECURSORS: Omen – The Latest Incidents Of Strange Animal Behavior, Mass Animal Die-Offs, Appearance Of Rare Creatures And Warnings From Mother Nature!

November 15, 2014 - EARTH - The following constitutes the latest reports of unusual and symbolic animal behavior, mass die-offs, beaching and stranding of mammals, and the appearance of rare creatures.

Brown tree snake discovered dead still biting its neck, Australia

This dead snake was found home at Earville, just south-west of Cairns, on Saturday still plunging its fangs into its own neck.

Did this snake kill itself using its own venom?

It certainly looked that way when Matt Hagan from Cairns Snake Catchers found the dead snake on Saturday still plunging its fangs into its own neck.

He was called to a home at Earville, just south-west of Cairns, after a woman found the 1.5 metre Brown Tree snake on her doorstep.

'Usually when the snake is outside, it goes away after a while and no one every sees it again. But she said it was still wriggling after half an hour so I went over to relocate it,' Mr Hagan told Daily Mail Australia.

'I could immediately see something wasn't quite right with the snake. When I picked it up I noticed it was still biting down firmly on its neck.

'I thought what on earth - it looked like it had bitten its own neck and died.'

Mr Hagan took the snake to a vet to see if he could shed light on how it died.

'He checked to see if it had been run over, but the only thing he could find was swelling near the bite,' Mr Hagan said.

'It must have been stung by something and died.

'Apparently when they do have a trauma they do try and bite around the area. I suspect the snake didn't end its own life on purpose, but was possibly in severe pain and ended up in this unfortunate position.'

In his 10 years as a snake catcher, Mr Hagan said he hasn't come across a dead snake still latched onto itself.

'It's just a really odd catch.'

- Daily Mail.

Millions of ladybirds invade Romanian town

Swarming: The ladybirds have made their way into people's homes

Millions on the insects settled on the town overnight, with experts blaming a rise in the number of greenflies - ladybird's favourite food

This creepy footage of a plague of ladybirds swarming through a town is guaranteed to make your skin crawl.

Millions of the winged insects settled on the town of Lipova, in western Romania, overnight.

Residents have had to seal up their homes to stop swarms of the bugs taking them over.

And despite attempts by town hall officials to control the invasion with pesticides, the determined bugs - members of the beetle family - keep coming in waves.

WATCH: Ladybird invasion forces residents to seal up.

The influx of the creepy-crawlies has left locals scratching their heads - and their skin - but experts have put it down to a rise in the number of ladybird food, greenflies.

Baffled local Arina Deca, 50, said: "No matter what you do they keep coming.

"I had my window open for a few minutes and when I closed it they were like a living carpet.

"I swept up tens of thousands of them with a broom and shovel and took them outside but more and more arrive all the time.

"We're not scared of them because they're harmless but it is just very creepy."

Mayor Mircea Jichici, 57, said: "We've had very warm weather, about 20 to 22 degrees which must have something to do with it.

"We've tried pesticides but we don't have enough to make an impact."

Biologist Mihai Pascu, 44, says the swarm has been triggered by a sudden rise in the number of aphids, or greenfly, the favourite food of ladybirds.

He explained: "The rains led to the increase of aphids and this in turn led to a sharp rise in the numbers of ladybirds. They are just feasting while it lasts.

"If we will have a mild winter, their numbers could be even larger next year." - Mirror.

2-year-old boy mauled to death and eaten by pig after crawling into its pen, China

A toddler in China was mauled to death and partially eaten by a pig after crawling into the animal's pen.

The two-year-old Wei Tsao, known affectionately as Keke, was playing in the garden of his parents' house, in eastern China's Jiangsu Province, when they decided to step away for a moment.

The toddler then crawled into the pig pen where the protective sow mauled him to death in an attempt to protect her newborn piglets.

After which, she began chewing on the boy's head.

During this time, the young boy then let out terrified screams which led to his parents rushing to him.

However, it was too late.

Distraught father Sun Tsai, 25, said:

"We had popped inside for just a couple of minutes when we heard the screams.

"When we came out we saw the pig about 80 metres away gnawing on Keke's head."

According to Ghana Nation, the villagers rushed to the scene as soon as they heard what had happened.

They then grabbed the pig and tied it to a tree and killed it.

After which, they cut its stomach open.

The contents of the pig's stomach revealed fragments of Keke's skull and hair.

The villagers showed the fragments to authorities to prove the pig had killed him.

Village leader Cheng Yuan, 62, said:

"This is a horrible tragedy. We had to cut the pig open, not as an act of revenge but to prove to the authorities that it had indeed killed and eaten Keke."

A police spokesman said:

"Sows are often docile creatures but pregnant pigs and ones who have just given birth can be very protective and turn aggressive towards anything they consider to be a threat to their piglets.

"We urge farmers to keep their pigs in their pens." - Singaporeseen.

Child expected to survive after mauling by family dog in Elmore County, Alabama

A 3-year-old boy suffered severe facial injuries after being attacked Wednesday afternoon by a pit bull in the Titus community of Elmore County. Sheriff Bill Franklin said the dog was owned by the boy's family and was on a chain in the yard when the child was mauled.

"The dog was actually owned by the father's brother from what we understand. The account we got was the animal takes part in hunting hogs," Sheriff Franklin said.

The child reportedly wandered out of the house while his father was in the bathroom, and got within reach of the dog. That is when the dog attacked the child, authorities say. Once the father was aware of what happened, he called 911, picked the child up, and took him near the roadway where they waited on emergency personnel to arrive. The child was then taken by medical helicopter to Children's Hospital in Birmingham.

WSFA 12 News spoke with Stephanie Jernigan, who says she is close to the family. Jernigan says a doctor's report shows there is no brain or internal damage. The child is expected to survive, but will have to undergo cosmetic surgery to repair the damage to his face.

Jernigan says both the child and his father play in the yard with their own animals and the neighbors' dogs.

"It's an unfortunate accident. He probably just stepped in to use the bathroom and said "I will be right back" and didn't think anything about it and came out. There was a dog there on a chain that is not familiar with the child, and the child being a child thinks, "I love animals, they love me. I'm going to pet the dog," and this unfortunate accident happened," Jernigan explained.

"Unfortunately there was a fatality involving a child right outside of Elmore County earlier this year and that was awful, so I hope this doesn't happen often,"
said Elmore County Humane Society Executive Director Rea Cord. "Our hearts go out to the family and the child."

The sheriff says his department gets about two calls per month on dog bites, but says maulings are much more rare. The dog dog in Wednesday's attack does not have a history of being violent. The sheriff added that since the dog was chained up at the time of the attack, the owner was not breaking any leash laws.

The dog, fully grown and weighing approximately 50 pounds, was taken by sheriff deputies to a vet clinic in Elmore County to be monitored for rabies. No decision will be made on the animal's fate for at least 10 days. - WSFA.

Senior citizen killed by elephant in India

A senior citizen was killed by an elephant in Hulaginakoppa village in Kalghatagi taluk of Dharwad district on Monday.

The deceased was identified as Ramappa Tadas (75), resident of the same village. Sources said Ramappa had taken his cattle for grazing and sighted movement in a nearby sugarcane field.

Mistaking it for a buffalo, he tried to chase it away, but the elephant trampled him instead.

Divisional Forest Officer (DFO) Sabakath Hussain told The Hindu that the incident took place at around 5.30 p.m. Officials of the Department of Forests rushed to the spot and chased the elephant into the nearby forests.

Mr. Hussain said five wild elephants were seen in a nearby village and officials had driven them away on Friday.

But Monday's elephant attack was unexpected. The department will provide compensation of Rs. 5 lakh to the next of kin of the deceased, of which Rs. 2 lakh would be handed over to the family immediately, he said. The department was taking al precautionary measures to avoid such incidents in the area, he added.  - The Hindu.

Pet dog attacks, mauls baby and mother in Bremerton, Washington

A pet dog mauled a 10-month-old boy and bit his mother on her hands and arms when she went to help him Tuesday evening at a home in Bremerton. Fire department emergency responders say the boy was alone in a room playing with a broom when the family dog attacked.

The Kitsap Sun reports the woman and her son were transported to Harrison Medical Center.Firefighter Troy Reynolds said the boy suffered substantial facial injuries.The dog was described as a medium-sized boxer mix.

Source: Kitsap Sun

- Register Guard.

Elephant tramples man to death in India

A 52-year-old man was trampled to death by a wild elephant at Pathiri South forest under the Chethalayath range of the South Wayanad Forest Division on Tuesday night.

The deceased was identified as Joy, from Thadathil at Karyampathi, near Pulpally.

Range officer P. Ranjithkumar said a herd of elephants chased Joy and his friend Chandran of Karyampathi tribal colony when they were collecting firewood from the forest. While Joy was trampled to death by an elephant, Chandran managed to escape.

The body was found in a search by forest officials and villagers on Wednesday.

Joy is survived by wife Lilly and two children.  - The Hindu.

Dog killed and owner injured in coyote attack in Mississauga, Canada

Maggie Kubat poses with her Yorkshire Terrier Gucci, who was killed by a suspected coyote in Mississauga on Friday (Nov. 6). The photo of the
coyote is a file photo from the Mississauga News and not the coyote suspected of the attack

Another family dog was attacked and killed in Mississauga during another suspected coyote attack last Friday (Nov.7) - this time just a few feet from its owner and while on a leash.

This latest attack comes on the heels of a string of unusual attacks across the GTA that have resulted in the deaths of two small dogs in Mississauga and injuries to two people who were bitten in a Brampton neighbourhood in a matter of weeks

Rafal Kubat was walking his family's two dogs on the sidewalk near their home at Westbridge Way and Financial Drive at around 9 p.m. Friday night when an animal believed to be a coyote charged at him and mauled and ran off with Gucci, one of the family's two Yorkshire Terriers.

Kubat did his best to get the dogs - both of whom were on leashes - out of harm's way, but was knocked down in the attack. He tore his ACL and now requires surgery

"My husband turned around to head home and saw the (coyote) running at him at full speed down the street and was not stopping. He retracted the leashes as fast as he could and tried to make for the middle of the street to stop a car. When the wolf attacked they all fell," said Kubat's wife, Maggie.

After being knocked down, Kubat says her husband watched helplessly as the animal grabbed Gucci, ripping the dog from its leash and making off with it towards the green space surrounding the nearby Hwy. 407.

The night before, Jasmine Bajaj was bitten in the leg when another suspected coyote snuck up behind her and grabbed her by the leg in the driveway of her Brampton home, not far from the area where Friday's attack occurred.

Animal services confirmed that another person was bitten in the neighbourhood at the end of September.

"If there are biting incidents (involving people), that most definitely is a red alert. At that point a full investigation needs to be done in the particular location," said Lesley Sampson, founding executive director at Coyote Watch Canada.

Just two weeks ago, a 9-year-old Chihuahua named Chico was attacked and killed by a pair of coywolves just metres from its owner, Nina, at the end of her driveway in Lorne Park - bringing the total of brazen attacks in Peel to three within a matter of a couple of weeks.
"My two dogs were on my property about 20 feet away from my front door ... I saw a large animal run by on the street and the dogs started barking. I yelled at my dogs to get back in the house and was able to get the first one inside, but the second dog was just snatched up and had its neck snapped right in front of me," said Nina.

According to Mississauga Animal Services education officer Linda Dent, there have been four reported incidents involving Eastern Coyotes and small dogs this year in Mississauga.
"In three of the instances, the dogs were off leash and one unfortunately slipped out of a harness according to the information that we have been provided," she said.

The City of Burlington has also issued an advisory to residents following a series of attacks on dogs in that city, including one that was caught by a home security camera. The frightening footage shows the coyote running up and grabbing the dog while tied up on a leash in the backyard, then shaking it violently before dropping it after the owner scared it off.

Experts and officials are calling the attacks unusual, both in nature and in number, as coyotes generally avoid close contact with humans. Kathy Duncan, manager of Animal Services in Brampton, says there is no real means of tracking the animals' numbers. She says, however, there is no evidence of a population increase.

Also, while attacks on pets are common, attacks on people are exceedingly rare. According to Toronto Wildlife Centre executive director Nathalie Karvonen, there has been only one confirmed coyote attack on humans in Toronto's history.

Sampson and Karvonen say that when this kind of behaviour presents itself, it's almost always as a result people feeding the animals, which lowers the coyote's natural fear of humans.

"That kind of demand behaviour doesn't escalate over night. When food is introduced as the reward, coyotes actually increase their proximity tolerance to humans," said Sampson. "This is an escalated situation but it can be de-escalated very easily."

Residents in the Brampton neighbourhood where the two people were attacked have sent a petition signed by over 50 people who live in the area demanding that the City remove the animals.

However, Brad White, a professor of genetics and biology at Trent University who has studied the animals for over a decade, says that culling or relocation programs are largely ineffective, as those removed are quickly replaced due to the species' numbers and adaptability.

While the City of Mississauga has posted signs and issued warnings reminding residents to keep their pets on a leash, Brampton has gone one step further by placing live traps in an attempt to catch the animal or animals responsible for biting humans near Mississauga Rd. and Steeles Ave. - Inside Halton.

Number of dog attack injuries treated at Ipswich Hospital UK have significantly increased in the last 2 years

This woman was attacked by a dog in Ipswich

The number of dog attack injuries treated at Ipswich Hospital have gone up significantly over the last two years, according to new statistics.

The data, which was released under a freedom of information request, shows there has been a year-on-year increase from 2007 to 2013 - with the biggest leaps seen over the last two years.

In 2007, 138 injuries were treated at Ipswich Hospital, compared to 241 last year and 229 until the end of September this year. 
The biggest increase was from 168 in 2012 to 241 in 2013.

Experts have claimed the number of attacks is likely to rise due to increasing dog ownership and also blamed owners who mismanage their pets.

Sarah Connell, 55, a dog trainer from Best Buddies Dog Training in Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, said: "From my point of view it may be caused by mismanagement. If people get to know their dogs and learn to understand their body language, it may not happen so much, because it depends on the dog's background as well.

"However, the statistics do not tell the background of the incidents - if you are playing with your dog, you might get bitten by accident with no malicious intent."

The data from Ipswich Hospital does not specify how many of the injuries treated were as a result of accidents and how many were specific dog attacks.

The Kennel Club, an organisation which works to protect the health and welfare of dogs, believes the rise in the number of injuries may be directly linked to the rise in the number of dogs itself.

Caroline Kisko, secretary of Kennel Club, said: "As NHS figures relate to patients with a dog-related injury, which may have been caused through a dog nipping someone, colliding with someone, or simply an owner tripping over their dog, the figures may be linked to the increase in the dog population.

"There are more dogs than ever in the UK, with an estimated 9 million across the country, so this is likely to be reflected in the Ipswich area and may explain the increase in dog-related injuries.

"These figures highlight the importance of responsible dog ownership, which includes properly training and socialising a dog and ensuring they are kept mentally and physically stimulated through a good amount of exercise, to ensure they are able to function well in society and live up to their status as man's best friend." - East Anglian Daily Times.

Bear escape raises alarm at Servion zoo near Lausanne, Switzerland

© Servion Zoo

Operators of a zoo near Lausanne are heaving sighs of relief after a bear weighing almost 300 kilograms was safely corralled after it briefly escaped from his compound.

An alert was issued around 3pm on Wednesday at the Servion zoo in the canton of Vaud after the Syrian brown bear took advantage of an improperly closed gate to make a bolt for freedom.

"Staff asked us to stay inside the restaurant," a visitor to the zoo told the 20 Minutes newspaper afterwards.

"We had to wait there a good hour."

The director of the zoo, Roland Bulliard, told the newspaper the bear headed to the outside perimeter of the park, according to an article published on Thursday.

In the end the bear was lured back to his enclosure.

"The animal knows well the staff," Bulliard said.

"He diidn't panic and it was easy to attract him back to his pen."

Bulliard said none of the dozen visitors at the zoo were put at risk but he didn't try to minimize the potential danger involved in the runaway case.

"A bear escaping, it's not nothing," he said.

"It should not happen."

The Servion Zoo displays around 200 animals of 60 different species, including lions and tigers, in a 55,000-square-metre park. - The Local.

Incredible video of young elephant repelling 14 hungry lions

In a desperate bid for survival, a young elephant showed tremendous courage to fight off a pride of 14 female lions. A video shows them chasing the animal to a riverbank, before it fights back, reverses the tables and escapes.

The scene took place in Zambia’s Norman Carr Safaris Chinzombo Camp, as tourists stood a short distance away, filming the spectacle that threatened to quickly turn bloody and gruesome.

Hercules – the new King of the Jungle – as visitors and staff now call the elephant – somehow became separated from his herd and had to fight overwhelming odds in the face of certain death.

WATCH: Elephant survives attack.

"In the many years I have been a safari guide in Zambia at the South Luangwa, never have I seen anything like this," said Innocent, a safari guide at the reserve.

"We were all so worried the elephant would be killed right before us. What a fighter,
" he added.

At one point, the poor animal had three lions on his back simultaneously. But he kicked and bucked to get to the river, where he thought the lions couldn’t catch him. Unfortunately, they were having none of it and charged straight into the river.

As a last resort, the brave elephant turned around and charged the lions, gathering up just enough speed to break their circle and make it out of the area alive.

“It’s hard to judge what actually happened,”
Innocent continued. He also said that behavior in such situations may differ from place to place, depending on various conditions.

Because elephant calves are incredibly insecure when separated from their herd, it is truly a wonder what took place in the video, now seen by over 200,000 people on YouTube. - RT.

Deep ocean sunfish found on beach in North Queensferry, Scotland

The sunfish can grow to 4m in length and weigh more than a tonne

An oceanic fish which normally lives up to 600m (1,968ft) below the surface has been washed up on a beach near Deep Sea World in North Queensferry.

The sunfish was discovered by a member of the public at East Bay beach who contacted the nearby aquarium.

Aquarists retrieved the stranded fish, which was around a metre long, however, it later died.

Deep Sea World's Chris Smith said: "This is the first sunfish stranding I have seen in the local area."

He added: "Sunfish spend their lives in the deep ocean so for it to end up stranded on a beach indicated it was in a very bad way.

"We brought it back to the aquarium and put it into one of our quarantine tanks where we did everything we could for it but sadly it died within an hour."

Tropical waters

Sunfish are the heaviest-known bony fish in the world with an average adult weight of about a tonne.

The maximum recorded specimen weighed 2.3 tonnes and was more than 4m (13ft) long - the height of a double decker bus.

The fish are found in temperate and tropical waters around the world but are sometimes spotted from boats off the Scottish coast.

Chris Smith added: "There are a few reports each year of sunfish sightings, mainly from fishing vessels as the fish have a funny habit of swimming on their side just under the surface of the water.

"They are usually summer visitors as they mainly eat jellyfish which are more abundant when the water is warmer.

"As this was so unusual we have been in contact with the National Museums of Scotland in Edinburgh who have said they would like to keep it as part of their research collection." - BBC.

Sled dogs clash with muskox again near Nome, Alaska

“Muskox family.”  © Bering Land Bridge National Preserve

In yet another clash between canine and ungulate, two dogs were injured last weekend by a muskox near a biking trail in Nome.

The dogs, which belong to musher Kirsten Bey, were flown to Anchorage for veterinary care and are now recovering. This latest incident comes after a series of muskox attacks throughout the summer and fall.

In late July, a dog belonging to Mitch Erickson was killed by a muskox in Icy View. Earlier that month, Nome resident Diana Adams was cited for taking a muskox out of season when it charged one of her dogs on the same lot.

A third dog was gored in an attack by a muskox on Anvil Mountain in early August. And a dog owner shot and killed a muskox near Wales later that month.

Adams' citation was eventually changed to a warning, though dog owners in Nome remained frustrated with the "nuisance muskox" problem - causing wildlife managers to open the subsistence hunt for muskox several months early.

In August, a bull muskox was taken as part of that subsistence hunt - and this weekend's attack marks the first violent incident involving a muskox in Nome since August.

The early subsistence hunt came after a number of attempts by wildlife managers to drive the muskox outside city limits. Those attempts ranged from deterrents like predator decoys and bear urine, to rubber bullets and foot patrols herding the muskox away from populated areas - all to relatively little avail.

A herd of muskox could be seen last week milling around the Nome Municipal Landfill. - KNOM.

Odd puma behavior? Vancouver Island woman slams door on curious cougar

Cougar at Carmanah Lighthouse station on the West Coast Trail. A Vancouver Island woman was alarmed to find a cougar staring straight at her
— separated by only a screen door — on Thursday afternoon.

A Vancouver Island woman was alarmed to find a cougar staring straight at her - separated by only a screen door - on Thursday afternoon.

"I ran toward the glass door and slammed it shut, and he turned away and ran," said Riley Nicholson from her Creekside Glen townhouse on Atkins Road, which backs onto a ravine.

"What if he had just jumped through the screen?" she said. "That was scary - I think people need to know."

Nicholson was packing up to move when she saw the big cat on her patio about 4:45 p.m., and she wondered whether it was attracted by residual cooking odours caused by having her oven set on "clean," or by her cat, which had been outside playing a short time earlier

The 39-year-old was packing up bathroom things when she heard her cat, Shadow, suddenly make frantic scratching sounds on the hardwood floor.

"I could hear her freaking out," said Nicholson, who said she thought the cat may have burned herself on the stove. Then she saw the cougar. "His head was the size of my cat."

She jumped into her car and drove a short distance to the home of a strata council member, who sent a message to all residents about a cougar on the prowl.

Conservation officials were also contacted. - Vancouver Sun.

Swedish hunter rushed to hospital after bear attack

A brown bear.  © Mastassus/Flickr

A hunter was rushed to hospital after being attacked by a bear in Jämtland in eastern Sweden on Saturday.

The hunter was attacked by the bear while out elk hunting in with his dog in the vicinity of Hammerdal in eastern Jämtland.

The man was taken by ambulance to Östersund Hospital and the hospital later confirmed that his injuries are not life-threatening.

The man was born in 1993 and was part of a hunting party with a total of four hunters. According to Hans Ängquist, county spokesman at Östersund police, it was a female bear with two cubs who suddenly appeared and attacked the man after a dog started barking at an elk during the hunt.

Ängquist report that shots were fired in the attack, which occurred near the village of Gåxsjö, almost 20 kilometres northwest of Hammerdal.

"The man is reported to have fired two shots," he said.

"It was one of the hunting party who called the emergency services. I know nothing about the injury situation but the man was alive when the ambulance arrived," Ängquist said.

A police patrol has inspected the site and the searching for the bears has begun. - The Local.