Tuesday, November 10, 2015

FIRE IN THE SKY: The Latest Fireball Sightings - Bright Meteor Fireball Over Aberdeenshire; Scotland, Incredible Bright Green Meteor Over Yorkshire; UK, Fireball Over South Island, New Zealand; Bright Lights, Loud Explosion In Eastern Cape, South Africa Could Have Been Meteorite; Fireball Lights Up Saskatchewan, Canada; And Huge Fireball Seen All Over Ireland!

November 10, 2015 - SPACE - The following constitutes several of the latest reports of fireballs, seen in the skies, across the globe.

Bright meteorite fireball photographed over Aberdeenshire, UK

© Leigh-Ann Mitchell
An aurora-hunting north-east photographer has captured a stunning image of a meteorite fireball falling to earth. Leigh-Ann Mitchell, from Ellon, had been out at the weekend scouring the night skies for any sign of the Northern Lights. The self-proclaimed "aurora chaser" settled at Pitfour Estate in Mintlaw, where she thought she had the best chance.

But the 40-year-old amateur snapper got more than she bargained for when she captured the moment a fireball from the Taurid meteor shower fell from the sky, combined with the heavenly aurora glow.

The shower is notorious for producing fireball flares, and experts said this year would be the best chance to witness them yet.

Mrs Mitchell's photograph has been viewed thousands of times since it was taken in the very early hours of Saturday morning, and shared across social media in every corner of the globe. Meteorologists across the world have also praised the stunning image, saying she captured a once-in-a-lifetime event.

She said it was a phenomenon she never expected to see, and that she had simply been in the right place at the right time.

"I'm a keen aurora chaser so I'm out with the camera at any opportunity," she explained.

"I often visit Pitfour during the day as it's a wonderful place with the camera. I checked recently with my phone compass what angle north would be over the lake with an aurora shot in mind. Myself and my husband are radio amateurs so we follow the space weather sites online and keep a keen eye on the data. Friday and Saturday were looking good so we headed up to Pitfour around 8.30pm, but nothing exciting was happening so we headed back home. More data came through around midnight so we headed back up around 12.30am to get some good colour from the aurora.

"I started shooting and from nowhere a bright streak of light came down over the lake in front of us and a green fireball lit up the whole sky then burned out. Thank goodness the camera was shooting a 30 second exposure and captured the shot.

"I guess we were in the right place at the right time."

To see more of Mrs Mitchell's images, visit http://on.fb.me/1HqjuXm - The Press and Journal.

Fireball snapped on photo in South Island, New Zealand

© Tim Maynard
An Invercargill man accidentally snapped a picture of a bright flash of light in the night sky on Monday.

Tim Maynard was taking photos on Stead St, near the airport, when he captured a picture of a meteor. He was unaware of the light trail until he looked back over the stills.

The picture was taken using a ten-second exposure, he said.

Southland Astronomical Society president Phil Burt said meteors were common, particularly at this time of year.

"There's a meteor shower that recurs regularly at this time of year. The activity increases for some nights so you are bound to see several," he said.  - Stuff.

Incredible bright green meteor photographed off coast of Yorkshire, UK

© Ross Parry

It might look like something from Close Encounters of the Third Kind - but there's an entirely logical reason for this eerie green light hovering in the sky above a home.

It's actually a meteorite - and was captured on camera by Peter Horbury as it flashed through the clear night sky near Whitby, North Yorkshire.

The remarkable sight was captured at the same time as the Taurid Meteor Shower passes Earth - with larger cellestial debris being more visible than usual.

Peter, 57, captured the snap at 1.30 am on Saturday after he headed to Hornblower Lodge in Whitby, North Yorkshire.

Describing the incredible sight, Peter said: 'On Friday night I was watching television and there was a beautiful clear sky. I checked the aurora forecast and there was activity so I decided to go out.

'I didn't see the meteorite as I had set my camera up and had gone to sit in my car. Then all of a sudden the whole sky lit up and it looked like daylight.

'It freaked me out. The whole area lit up and I was thinking "what was that?" It was really tense.'

He added: 'I love digital photography because you can take as many photos as you like. It is great being able to capture images in Whitby that are a bit different to others you might see.' - Metro.

Bright lights, loud explosion in Eastern Cape, South Africa could have been meteorite

File photo of a meteor. © Lisa Warren/NASA/JPL/AP
The Kouga municipality in the Eastern Cape is investigating rumours that a meteorite struck near the Patensie area on Sunday night.

A News24 user and several others described seeing flashes across the sky, as well as a loud explosion. "We have heard the same rumour and our emergency services are going out this morning to go and check it out," municipal spokesperson Laura-Leigh Randall told News24 on Monday morning. "The fire department did not get any calls on it."

Francois Greyling, a Democratic Alliance councillor in the Despatch area, who lives relatively near to Patensie, also heard an explosion. "I studied in Potchefstroom where the army did bombing practice which had a distinct thumping sound. I was watching a movie with the kids and the wife, when I heard what sounded like a bomb going off. "It immediately reminded me of that thumping sound," he said. Greyling said he "though nothing of it" until he saw people talking on social media about a possible meteorite strike in the area.

A News24 user said on Sunday night: "Massive explosion... a series of 'several lightning flashes' were observed in Paradise Beach [Jeffreys Bay] in a westerly direction at 21:00 on 8th Nov followed by about approximately 3 minutes later the sound of a massive explosion as though a bomb had gone off." JBay News tweeted at Nasa, asking, "Is it true that a meteorite landed in Patensie South Africa on 8th November?"

Local lawyer Hannes Latsky tweeted: "News just in. The loud explosion sound we heard [in] #Jbay was in fact a meteorite impact. There has been [a] meteorite strike in Patensie area."
News just in. The loud explosion sound we heard #Jbay was in fact a meteorite impact. There has been meteorite strike in Patensie area. ??

— Hannes Latsky (@HannesLatsky) November 9, 2015

- News24.

Fireball lights up sky, Twitter in Saskatchewan, Canada

A Taurid meteor lit up the skies over Ralph, Sask., on Sunday night. © Bill Allen/Twitter
People in Saskatchewan are talking about a fireball that streaked across Saskatchewan skies last night.

It was a Taurid meteor that lit things up and was visible from Saskatoon to the Weyburn area.

Skygazers say it's a particularly good year for the Taurids — so named because they appear to come out of the Taurus constellation.

The meteor shower will continue for the next few days, but Saskatchewan skies are clouding over, so the golden opportunity may be over.

Meanwhile, as Sunday evening's meteor lit up the skies, it also lit things up on social media, with a variety of people tweeting about their sighting.

Among the lucky shutterbugs was Bill Allen, of the Ralph area near Weyburn, who captured a spectacular image of the fireball.

EpicJib Aerial Media @EpicJib

Just happened to be in downtown #Saskatoon and we grab this #meteor in our shot. #exploresask #yxe #saskatchewan

4:01 AM - 9 Nov 2015
Kevin Stanfield


Whaaat was that flash!? #yxe
Quincy Harriman @QuincyHarriman

@StanfieldGlobal wondering the samething. I saw what looked like a meteor fall SW of #yxe

2:48 AM - 9 Nov 2015
Drew Dalby @Dalby

That was a badass meteor that just burned up over North #YQR!

2:49 AM - 9 Nov 2015
DV @DallasRVerity

Just saw a crazzzzzy meteor over #yqr . Super bright. Thought it was a plane going down at first!

2:40 AM - 9 Nov 2015
Sarah Cooke @SAHoganCooke

Anyone see the meteor that streaked across the sky tonight? #meteor #yqr

4:05 AM - 9 Nov 2015
Steve Liebel @sliebel

@csa_asc Couldn't get a pic but a bright green #taurid was just visible over #yqr

2:48 AM - 9 Nov 2015
- CBC.

Huge fireball seen all over Ireland

Hundreds of reports of a massive fireball streaking across the skies over Ireland on Sunday night have been posted on social media.

Fireballs are caused when a large rock from space burns up in the atmosphere as it collides with Earth at speeds of the order of 100,000 mph.

Reports on social media suggest the fireball (featured over Kildare tonight in the video) was seen all over the island, including County Clare where one Clare Herald reader from Corofin said the sky lit up for five seconds as the blueish/greenish fireball crossed the country from west to east at approximately 8.13pm.

WATCH: Fireball over Ireland.

Anyone who saw the fireball is being asked to fill in an online report form on Astronomy Ireland's website 'astronomy.ie'.Any companies who operate CCTV cameras are also being asked to check their recordings for Sunday night around 10:10pm to see if they recorded the fireball near the horizon as photographic records like this are extremely valuable for the analysis.

In 1999 a fireball resulted in fragments being found at Leighlinbridge in Co. Carlow. One collector offered a £20,000 sterling reward for these meteorites.

In 1969, another fireball dropped fragments all across Northern Ireland, including one that smashed through the roof of a building in Sprucefield RUC Station. - The Clare Herald.


WORLD WAR III: Is Washington Preparing For World War III - The U.S. Pentagon Engages In Systematic Preparations And Strategic Planning As Military Conflict With China And Russia Becomes Inevitable?

November 10, 2015 - UNITED STATES
- The US military-intelligence complex is engaged in systematic preparations for World War III. As far as the Pentagon is concerned, a military conflict with China and/or Russia is inevitable, and this prospect has become the driving force of its tactical and strategic planning.

Three congressional hearings Tuesday demonstrated this reality.
In the morning, the Senate Armed Services Committee held a lengthy hearing on cyberwarfare. In the afternoon, a subcommittee of the House Armed Services Committee discussed the present size and deployment of the US fleet of aircraft carriers, while another subcommittee of the same panel discussed the modernization of US nuclear weapons.

We will provide a more detailed account of these hearings, which were attended by a WSWS reporter. But certain preliminary observations can be made.

None of the hearings discussed the broader implications of the US preparations for war, or what a major war between nuclear-armed powers would mean for the survival of the human race, and even of life on our planet. On the contrary, the hearings were examples of what might be called the routinization of World War III. A US war with China and/or Russia was taken as given, and the testimony of witnesses and questions from senators and representatives, Democrats and Republicans alike, concerned the best methods for prevailing in such a conflict.

The hearings were component parts of an ongoing process.
The witnesses referred to their past writings and statements. The senators and representatives referred to previous testimony by other witnesses. In other words, the preparations for world war, using cyber weapons, aircraft carriers, bombers, missiles and the rest of a vast array of weaponry, have been under way for a protracted period of time. They are not a response to recent events, whether in the South China Sea, Ukraine, Syria or anywhere else.

Each of the hearings presumed a major US conflict with another great power (sometimes unnamed, sometimes explicitly designated as China or Russia) within a relatively short time frame, years rather than decades.

The danger of terrorism, hyped incessantly for the purposes of stampeding public opinion, was downplayed and to some extent discounted. At one point in the Senate hearing on cyberwarfare, in response to a direct question from Democrat Jeanne Shaheen of New Hampshire, the panel witnesses all declared that their greatest concern was nation-states, not terrorists.

One of the witnesses at that hearing was Dr. Peter W. Singer, listed as a “Strategist and Senior Fellow” for New America, a Washington think tank. He titled his presentation, “The Lessons of World War 3.” He began his prepared statement with the following description of that imagined conflict:
“US and Chinese warships battle at sea, firing everything from cannons to cruise missiles to lasers. Stealthy Russian and American fighter jets dogfight in the air, with robotic drones flying as their wingmen. Hackers in Shanghai and Silicon Valley duel in digital playgrounds. And fights in outer space decide who wins below on Earth. Are these scenes from a novel or what could actually take place in the real world the day after tomorrow? The answer is both.”
None of the hearings saw any debate about either the likelihood of a major war or the necessity of winning that war. No one challenged the assumption that “victory” in a world war between nuclear-armed powers is a meaningful concept. The discussion was entirely devoted to what technologies, assets and human resources were required for the US military to prevail.

This was just as true for the Democratic senators and representatives as for their Republican counterparts.
By custom, the two parties are seated on opposite sides of the committee or subcommittee chairmen. Without that arrangement, there would be no way of detecting, from their questions and expressions of opinion, which party they belonged to.
Contrary to the media portrayal of Washington as deeply divided between parties with intransigently opposed political outlooks, there was bipartisan agreement on this most fundamental of issues, the preparation of a new imperialist world war.

The unanimity of the political representatives of big business by no means suggests that there are no obstacles in the path of this drive to war.
Each of the hearings grappled, in different ways, with the profound crisis confronting American imperialism. This crisis has two major components: the declining economic power of the United States compared to its major rivals, and the internal contradictions of American society, with the deepening alienation of the working class and particularly the youth.

At the House subcommittee hearing on aircraft carriers, the chairman noted that one of the witnesses, a top Navy admiral, had expressed concern over having “an 11-carrier navy in a 15-carrier world.” There were so many challenges confronting Washington, he continued, that what was really needed was a navy of 21 aircraft carriers—double the present size, and one that would bankrupt even a country with far more resources than the United States.

The Senate hearing on cybersecurity touched briefly on the internal challenge to American militarism.
The lead witness, retired Gen. Keith Alexander, former director of the National Security Agency and former head of the Pentagon’s CyberCommand, bemoaned the effect of leaks by NSA contractor Edward Snowden and Army private Chelsea Manning, declaring that “insider attacks” were one of the most serious threats facing the US military.

Democratic Senator Joe Manchin of West Virginia asked him directly, referring to Snowden, “Should we treat him as a traitor?” Alexander responded, “He should be treated as a traitor and tried as such.” Manchin nodded heartily, in evident agreement.

While the witnesses and senators chose to use the names of Snowden and Manning to personify the “enemy within,” they were clearly conscious that the domestic opposition to war is far broader than a few individual whistleblowers.

This is not a matter simply of the deep-seated revulsion among working people in response to 14 years of bloody imperialist interventions in Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, Libya, Syria, Yemen and across North Africa, important as that is.

A war between the United States and a major power like China or Russia, even if it were possible to prevent its escalation into an all-out nuclear exchange, would involve a colossal mobilization of the resources of American society, both economic and human. It would mean further dramatic reductions in the living standards of the American people, combined with a huge blood toll that would inevitably fall mainly on the children of the working class.

Ever since the Vietnam War, the US military has operated as an all-volunteer force, avoiding conscription, which provoked widespread opposition and direct defiance in the 1960s and early 1970s. A non-nuclear war with China or Russia would mean the restoration of the draft and bring the human cost of war home to every family in America.

Under those conditions, no matter how great the buildup of police powers and the resort to repressive measures against antiwar sentiments, the stability of American society would be put to the test. The US ruling elite is deeply afraid of the political consequences. And it should be.

- Zero Hedge.


SIGNS IN THE HEAVENS: NASA Captures A Huge Pulse Of Energy Coming Out Of A Black Hole - Discovery Sheds Light On How Mysterious Flares Form!

Astronomers have spotted black holes flare in the past, but what causes this to happen has long been a mystery. Now, researchers have found, for the first time,
that a supermassive black hole's flare was caused by the ejection of its corona. A supermassive black hole is depicted in this artist's concept

November 10, 2015 - SPACE
- Black holes can send out huge pulses of energy, but what causes these outbursts has long been a mystery.

Now, researchers have found, for the first time, that a supermassive black hole's flare was caused by the ejection of its corona.

This is a mysterious source of highly energetic particles around black holes that generate X-ray light.

The discovery was made from observations by Nasa's Swift Observatory and the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR).

'This is the first time we have been able to link the launching of the corona to a flare,' said Dan Wilkins of Saint Mary's University in Halifax, Canada.

'This will help us understand how supermassive black holes power some of the brightest objects in the universe.'

Supermassive black holes don't give off any light themselves, but they are often encircled by disks of hot, glowing material.

The gravity of a black hole pulls swirling gas into it, heating this material and causing it to shine with different types of light.

Another source of radiation near a black hole is the corona.

Coronas are made up of highly energetic particles that generate X-ray light, but details about their appearance, and how they form, are unclear.

Astronomers think coronas have one of two likely configurations.

The 'lamppost' model says they are compact sources of light, similar to light bulbs, that sit above and below the black hole, along its rotation axis.

The other model proposes that the coronas are spread out more diffusely, either as a larger cloud around the black hole, or as a 'sandwich' that envelops the surrounding disk of material like slices of bread.

The new data support the 'lamppost' model - and demonstrate, in the finest detail yet, how the light-bulb-like coronas move.


Supermassive black holes don't give off any light themselves, but they are often encircled by disks of hot, glowing material.

The gravity of a black hole pulls swirling gas into it, heating this material and causing it to shine with different types of light.

Another source of radiation near a black hole is the corona.

Coronas are made up of highly energetic particles that generate X-ray light, but details about their appearance, and how they form, are unclear.

Astronomers think coronas have one of two likely configurations.

The 'lamppost' model says they are compact sources of light, similar to light bulbs, that sit above and below the black hole, along its rotation axis.

The other model proposes that the coronas are spread out more diffusely, either as a larger cloud around the black hole, or as a 'sandwich' that envelops the surrounding disk of material like slices of bread.

The latest study backs up the lamppost theory.
This diagram shows how a shifting feature, called a corona, can create a flare of X-rays around a black hole. The corona (feature represented in purplish colors) gathers
inward (left), becoming brighter, before shooting away from the black hole (middle and right). Astronomers don't know why the coronas shift, but they have
learned that this process leads to a brightening of X-ray light that can be observed by telescopes

The observations began when Swift, which monitors the sky for cosmic outbursts of X-rays and gamma rays, caught a large flare coming from the supermassive black hole called Markarian 335, or Mrk 335, located 324 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Pegasus.

This supermassive black hole, which sits at the centre of a galaxy, was once one of the brightest X-ray sources in the sky.

'Something very strange happened in 2007, when Mrk 335 faded by a factor of 30,' said Luigi Gallo, the principal investigator for the project.
Another co-author, Dirk Grupe of Morehead State University in Kentucky, has been using Swift to regularly monitor the black hole since 2007.

In September 2014, Swift caught Mrk 335 in a huge flare. Eight days later, NuSTAR set its X-ray eyes on the target, witnessing the final half of the flare event.

After careful scrutiny of the data, the astronomers realised they were seeing the ejection, and eventual collapse, of the black hole's corona.

'The corona gathered inward at first and then launched upwards like a jet,' said Wilkins.

'We still don't know how jets in black holes form, but it's an exciting possibility that this black hole's corona was beginning to form the base of a jet before it collapsed.'

Coronas can move very fast. The corona associated with Mrk 335, according to the scientists, was traveling at about 20 per cent the speed of light.

'The nature of the energetic source of X-rays we call the corona is mysterious, but now with the ability to see dramatic changes like this we are getting clues about its size and structure,' said Fiona Harrison, the principal investigator.

Many other black hole brainteasers remain. For example, astronomers want to understand what causes the ejection of the corona in the first place. - Daily Mail.


INFRASTRUCTURE COLLAPSE: Plane Crashes In Akron, Ohio - Nine People Killed!

A firefighter walks up a driveway as an apartment building burns in Akron Tuesday where authorities say a small business jet crashed. The plane burst into
flames and disintegrated after impact. It was unclear how many people were on board. (Scott Ferrell via AP)
November 10, 2015 - OHIO, UNITED STATES - A private charter jet with nine people on board crashed into an Akron apartment building Tuesday afternoon, leaving no survivors.

The owner of the plane confirmed nine people were on board. Authorities on Tuesday evening said no one on the plane survived, but they would not yet confirm the number of people on board or dead.
It appeared no one on the ground in the Ellet neighborhood where the crash occurred was injured or killed.

Eyewitnesses reported seeing the plane fall out of the sky and a huge ball of fire after the crash, which happened shortly before 3 p.m.

Augusto Lewkowicz, the owner and operator of the plane, told the Beacon Journal on Tuesday afternoon that he would not release the names of the seven passengers or two crew members in the fatal crash near the corner of Mogadore and Skelton roads.

“I owe responses to the family members first,” Lewkowicz said.

It wasn’t known whether any of the crash victims were from the Akron area.

The midsize Hawker 800 corporate jet was on the second leg of a charter that began Monday, Lewkowicz said, noting that there was no indication before the crash that anything was wrong.

“It was a perfectly well-maintained aircraft with no squawks,” Lewkowicz said, adding that there was no chatter from the pilots to indicate anything was out of the ordinary.

The flight was chartered by Execuflight, a Florida company.

Area police and firefighters work at the scene after a passenger jet crashed into a home on Mogadore Rd. while on a short approach to Akron-Fulton Airport on Tuesday
in Akron. All nine people aboard the plane were killed in the crash. No one was inside the home at the time of the crash. (Ed Suba Jr./Akron Beacon Journal)

Area police and firefighters work at the scene after a passenger jet crashed into a home on Mogadore Rd. while on a short approach to Akron-Fulton Airport
on Tuesday in Akron. An undetermined amount of people died in the accident. (Ed Suba Jr./Akron Beacon Journal)

Area police and firefighters work at the scene after a passenger jet crashed into a home on Mogadore Rd. while on a short approach to Akron-Fulton Airport
on Tuesday in Akron. An undetermined amount of people died in the accident. (Ed Suba Jr./Akron Beacon Journal)

The plane, according to FlightAware.com records, originated in Fort Lauderdale on Monday, leaving about 7 a.m. and flying to St. Paul, Minn., then to the Quad City International Airport in Moline, Ill., then on to Spirit of St. Louis Airport in Missouri before finishing the day about 7:50 p.m. at Cincinnati Municipal Airport. On Tuesday, the plane made a short jaunt to Dayton Wright Brothers Airport before embarking at 2:13 p.m. for a 36-minute flight to Akron Fulton.

Staff Lt. Bill Haymaker of the Ohio State Highway Patrol described the plane’s final path to the airport, which is about 4 miles away from the crash site.

The aircraft clipped electrical and telephone wires on Mogadore Road before hitting a small apartment building at 2:53 p.m. at 3041 Mogadore Road and slamming into an embankment. That building was completely destroyed, Haymaker said. A second house in the area also was damaged, likely from the fiery debris.

No one at home

The occupants of the building that was destroyed weren’t home at the time of the crash.

The owner of the apartment building was not immediately available to comment.

The area is a heavily residential neighborhood with some small commercial businesses, including an auto body shop and a mom-and-pop eatery.

As fire and police crews were on the scene not far from Ellet High School, onlookers tried to get a closer look. Some were crying and embracing.

The fire burned late into the afternoon, making further investigation difficult, Haymaker said.

Forensic inquiry

Haymaker and Summit County Medical Examiner Lisa Kohler said the investigation would continue through the night and Wednesday when there will be more light.

“It is a recovery process,” Haymaker confirmed during a news conference. “We know the plane could have held up to 10 people. We know there’s family out there that want to know if their loved ones were in the crash. It’s going to be a process ... that could go all day long.

“The plane is burnt. That is going to take some time,” he said, adding that the scene was not a “large debris field.”

Screen grab of the 1979 Hawker Siddeley De Havilland - DH125 that crashed into a house and apartment building in Akron on Tuesday. (FlightAware)

When asked about the number of crash victims, Haymaker said authorities have heard several different numbers but had not talked to the owner of the plane.

Haymaker said there was no information available about any potential distress call made from the plane before the crash. He was also asked whether the rain or weather could have had anything to do with the crash.

The National Weather Service reported fog and mist in the area around the time of the crash and recorded visibility at 1.5 miles.

“Obviously, you know what the weather is tonight. There is cloud cover and rain. That is all speculation if that had anything to do with the crash,” he said.

Federal investigation

Two Federal Aviation Administration investigators were on the scene Tuesday afternoon and the National Transportation Safety Board was expected to be there by evening.

FAA spokesman Tony Molinaro said the NTSB will be in charge of the investigation.

Akron police and firefighters responded, with firefighters who worked to extinguish a massive fire created by the crash, according to a city press release.

Pieces of the plane, engulfed in flames, skidded off an embankment behind the home before igniting an apartment building.

The crash caused at least 1,500 customers to lose power and Ohio Edison officials said all but 100 customers were restored by 4:30 p.m.

Witnesses took to Twitter to post fiery pictures and videos of the crash. One photo, sent by a viewer to newsnet5.com, which posted the picture, showed fire engulfing power lines and the apartment building.

The crash was a lead story on several national TV news stations Tuesday night and was a trending topic on Facebook and Twitter.

Beacon Journal staff writers Jim Mackinnon and Stephanie Warsmith contributed to this report. - Akron Beach Journal.


PLANETARY TREMORS: Powerful 6.9 Earthquake Strike Off Chilean Coast - Very Strong Aftershocks; No Tsunamic Warning! [MAPS+TECTONIC SUMMARY]

USGS earthquake location map.

November 10, 2015 - CHILE
- A 6.9 magnitude earthquake has struck off the coast of Chile, some 100 kilometers west of Coquimbo, according to USGS.

The epicenter of the earthquake was located at a depth of just 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), according to the United States Geological Survey, which initially reported it as having a magnitude 6.6.

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center said that based on all available data they have received, there is no threat of a tsunami.

There were no immediate reports of any injuries or damage having occurred to local buildings. Chile’s Navy confirmed that the parameters of the quake did not suggest a possible threat of a tsunami occurring.

USGS earthquake shakemap intensity map.

The quake affected the same region as the deadly 8.3-magnitude earthquake in September, which killed at least 15 and forced over one million people to evacuate their homes, triggering tsunami warnings in California and Hawaii.

Chile has a long history of major quakes, including the strongest recorded in recent history. At least 1,655 people were killed and 3,000 injured in the Great Chilean Earthquake of 1960. - RT.

Seismotectonics of South America (Nazca Plate Region).

The South American arc extends over 7,000 km, from the Chilean margin triple junction offshore of southern Chile to its intersection with the Panama fracture zone, offshore of the southern coast of Panama in Central America. It marks the plate boundary between the subducting Nazca plate and the South America plate, where the oceanic crust and lithosphere of the Nazca plate begin their descent into the mantle beneath South America. The convergence associated with this subduction process is responsible for the uplift of the Andes Mountains, and for the active volcanic chain present along much of this deformation front. Relative to a fixed South America plate, the Nazca plate moves slightly north of eastwards at a rate varying from approximately 80 mm/yr in the south to approximately 65 mm/yr in the north. Although the rate of subduction varies little along the entire arc, there are complex changes in the geologic processes along the subduction zone that dramatically influence volcanic activity, crustal deformation, earthquake generation and occurrence all along the western edge of South America.

Most of the large earthquakes in South America are constrained to shallow depths of 0 to 70 km resulting from both crustal and interplate deformation. Crustal earthquakes result from deformation and mountain building in the overriding South America plate and generate earthquakes as deep as approximately 50 km. Interplate earthquakes occur due to slip along the dipping interface between the Nazca and the South American plates. Interplate earthquakes in this region are frequent and often large, and occur between the depths of approximately 10 and 60 km. Since 1900, numerous magnitude 8 or larger earthquakes have occurred on this subduction zone interface that were followed by devastating tsunamis, including the 1960 M9.5 earthquake in southern Chile, the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in the world. Other notable shallow tsunami-generating earthquakes include the 1906 M8.5 earthquake near Esmeraldas, Ecuador, the 1922 M8.5 earthquake near Coquimbo, Chile, the 2001 M8.4 Arequipa, Peru earthquake, the 2007 M8.0 earthquake near Pisco, Peru, and the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake located just north of the 1960 event.

USGS plate tectonics for the region.

Large intermediate-depth earthquakes (those occurring between depths of approximately 70 and 300 km) are relatively limited in size and spatial extent in South America, and occur within the Nazca plate as a result of internal deformation within the subducting plate. These earthquakes generally cluster beneath northern Chile and southwestern Bolivia, and to a lesser extent beneath northern Peru and southern Ecuador, with depths between 110 and 130 km. Most of these earthquakes occur adjacent to the bend in the coastline between Peru and Chile. The most recent large intermediate-depth earthquake in this region was the 2005 M7.8 Tarapaca, Chile earthquake.

Earthquakes can also be generated to depths greater than 600 km as a result of continued internal deformation of the subducting Nazca plate. Deep-focus earthquakes in South America are not observed from a depth range of approximately 300 to 500 km. Instead, deep earthquakes in this region occur at depths of 500 to 650 km and are concentrated into two zones: one that runs beneath the Peru-Brazil border and another that extends from central Bolivia to central Argentina. These earthquakes generally do not exhibit large magnitudes. An exception to this was the 1994 Bolivian earthquake in northwestern Bolivia. This M8.2 earthquake occurred at a depth of 631 km, making it the largest deep-focus earthquake instrumentally recorded, and was felt widely throughout South and North America.

Subduction of the Nazca plate is geometrically complex and impacts the geology and seismicity of the western edge of South America. The intermediate-depth regions of the subducting Nazca plate can be segmented into five sections based on their angle of subduction beneath the South America plate. Three segments are characterized by steeply dipping subduction; the other two by near-horizontal subduction. The Nazca plate beneath northern Ecuador, southern Peru to northern Chile, and southern Chile descend into the mantle at angles of 25° to 30°. In contrast, the slab beneath southern Ecuador to central Peru, and under central Chile, is subducting at a shallow angle of approximately 10° or less. In these regions of “flat-slab” subduction, the Nazca plate moves horizontally for several hundred kilometers before continuing its descent into the mantle, and is shadowed by an extended zone of crustal seismicity in the overlying South America plate. Although the South America plate exhibits a chain of active volcanism resulting from the subduction and partial melting of the Nazca oceanic lithosphere along most of the arc, these regions of inferred shallow subduction correlate with an absence of volcanic activity. - USGS.


GEOLOGICAL UPHEAVAL: Sinkholes Keep Popping Up Across The United States - Massive 375-Feet Long By 30-Feet Deep Sinkhole Opens Up In Meridian, Mississippi; Swallows Up 12 Cars! [PHOTOS+VIDEO]

- A large "sinkhole" opened in a new IHOP restaurant parking lot in Meridian, Mississippi, over the weekend, swallowing as many as 12 cars, according to CNN affiliate WTOK.

The asphalt gave way Saturday evening, leaving a huge hole estimated to be about 35-feet wide, 375-feet long and 30-feet deep, authorities said.

Emergency officials roped off the area to keep people away, WTOK reported. There were no reports of injuries.

Mayor Percy Bland said the cave-in appears to be over the site of a former city culvert, according to WTOK. Crews will begin trying to remove some of the cars Monday, the mayor added.

While the event was first blamed on a sinkhole, Dr. Greg Easson of the University of Mississippi's Geology and Geological Engineering Department said that's not accurate.

Easson told CNN sinkholes are the result of a natural process involving the erosion of limestone bedrock due to underground water movement, but what occurred in Meridian was the collapse of a culvert or underwater drain due to the new construction in the area.

WATCH: IHOP 'sinkhole' swallows one dozen cars.

Craig Hoffman, a spokesman for International House of Pancakes, told CNN the company is happy no one got hurt.

"The cause of the sinkhole is still under investigation, and our primary concern continues to be the safety of our guests and team members," Hoffman said. "The restaurant will remain closed until all necessary repairs have been completed." - CNN.


MONUMENTAL PLANETARY TREMORS: "We've Got An Earthquake Issue" - Oklahoma Corporation Commission Declares Oklahoma As The No.1 Earthquake Area In The World!

Earthquake 3D map of seismic swarm in Oklahoma.

November 10, 2015 - OKLAHOMA, UNITED STATES
- Oklahoma is now the No. 1 earthquake area in the world, an Oklahoma Corporation Commission spokesman said Monday.

Spokesman Matt Skinner said the state is unique in terms of frequency.

"We have had 15 (earthquakes) in Medford since 5 o'clock Saturday morning," he noted. "We've got an earthquake issue."

Skinner said the world is going through a seismic phase.

"Oklahoma is absolutely unique in terms of the number of earthquakes we've had," he said.

Jim Palmer, OCC director of public information and manager of consumer education, said Oklahoma is unique in North America. He said there are other parts of the world experiencing enormous numbers of earthquakes.

"In North America, Oklahoma is very unique and unique in the world, in the sense that it's concentrated so much in just one area," Palmer said.

There is a tendency to make it an oil and gas versus earthquakes versus "whatever issue," Skinner told members of Enid Rotary Club.

"This is an Oklahoma issue that is an earthquake issue. It is nothing more and it's nothing less," Skinner said. "For us, it's an oil and gas issue as well, because that's what we have jurisdiction over that the seismologists say pertains to earthquakes."

In 2013, the oil and gas industry responded to a request from the OCC to consider providing 3D seismic data — which is proprietary, very expensive and absolutely protected by law, he said.

"And the industry responded in a huge way, and they don't get enough credit," Skinner said. "It was a few brave souls that came forward."

A method for getting data from the oil and gas industry was set up, and Oklahoma Geological Survey receives the information and turns it into data OCC can use.

OCC cannot correlate a given seismic event to a given disposal well. When wells are shut down by OCC, it's because the wells fit a risk profile, Skinner said.

OCC has developed areas of interest, where earthquake clusters have occurred. A cluster is two earthquakes within a half mile of each other, with one measuring at least magnitude 3.2. Originally, they were three-mile circles, then six-mile circles. The circles grew in number and now encompass a very large area of Oklahoma — about 9,000 square miles in all, he said.

There is concern about water being injected into the basement rock, Skinner said.

"It's overwhelming data over 40 years, 50 years, that that behavior is not something you want to do in a seismically active state," he said.

Matt Skinner, Oklahoma Corporation Commission spokesman, talks Monday to Enid Rotary Club members. (Billy Hefton / Enid News & Eagle)

OCC has been told to concentrate on disposal wells, most notably Arbuckle disposal wells, Skinner said.

Most of the water going down a hole is from a producing well. It has to be disposed of in some way, and the preferred method of disposal is injection, he said.

"It came out of the ground, you're putting it back in the ground," Skinner said.

It is saltwater with other natural constituents, like arsenic and lead, he said.

"You really don't want it out on the surface. You want to put it back down the hole. So, that's done in the name of protecting groundwater, it's protecting underground drinking water supplies and it's worked quite well for a long, long time," Skinner said. "However, now, we have a new thing to worry about, which is induced seismicity."

In 2015, there has been significant activity involving OCC, Palmer said. More than 500 wells have undergone changes due to OCC directives.

OCC still knows little, Skinner said.

"All we have is data," he said. "In terms of this phenomenon, very little is really known."

Skinner said OGS announced last week it was seeing a reduction in the overall earthquake rate.

"Now, this weekend may have blown that out of the water, I don't know," he said. "Again, based on the data, it would appear that even if you do the right thing, it's going to take a long time. There's no quick off switch."

During the presentation, a map of disposal wells was shown. A meeting attendee questioned the lack of disposal in Osage County.

"We have no idea what's going on in Osage County, it's under federal control. The tribe owns the minerals and we have no jurisdiction there," Skinner said. "We have no data."

OGS does have seismometers there and they report there is no major seismic activity currently in Osage County, he said.

Another attendee asked at what earthquake magnitude should Oklahomans be worried.

Skinner said the OGS says a magnitude 5.0 "is the awful number."

"At 5.0, you are guaranteed property damage," he said. "Anyone ... who's been through a 4.5, as I have in my house, knows that once you've felt a 4.5 you can't imagine what a 5.0 is like. It's awful." - ENID News.

Tectonic Summary - Earthquakes in the Stable Continental Region

Natural Occurring Earthquake Activity
Most of North America east of the Rocky Mountains has infrequent earthquakes. Here and there earthquakes are more numerous, for example in the New Madrid seismic zone centered on southeastern Missouri, in the Charlevoix-Kamouraska seismic zone of eastern Quebec, in New England, in the New York - Philadelphia - Wilmington urban corridor, and elsewhere. However, most of the enormous region from the Rockies to the Atlantic can go years without an earthquake large enough to be felt, and several U.S. states have never reported a damaging earthquake.

Earthquakes east of the Rocky Mountains, although less frequent than in the West, are typically felt over a much broader region than earthquakes of similar magnitude in the west. East of the Rockies, an earthquake can be felt over an area more than ten times larger than a similar magnitude earthquake on the west coast. It would not be unusual for a magnitude 4.0 earthquake in eastern or central North America to be felt by a significant percentage of the population in many communities more than 100 km (60 mi) from its source. A magnitude 5.5 earthquake in eastern or central North America might be felt by much of the population out to more than 500 km (300 mi) from its source. Earthquakes east of the Rockies that are centered in populated areas and large enough to cause damage are, similarly, likely to cause damage out to greater distances than earthquakes of the same magnitude centered in western North America.

Most earthquakes in North America east of the Rockies occur as faulting within bedrock, usually miles deep. Few earthquakes east of the Rockies, however, have been definitely linked to mapped geologic faults, in contrast to the situation at plate boundaries such as California's San Andreas fault system, where scientists can commonly use geologic evidence to identify a fault that has produced a large earthquake and that is likely to produce large future earthquakes. Scientists who study eastern and central North America earthquakes often work from the hypothesis that modern earthquakes occur as the result of slip on preexisting faults that were formed in earlier geologic eras and that have been reactivated under the current stress conditions. The bedrock of Eastern North America is, however, laced with faults that were active in earlier geologic eras, and few of these faults are known to have been active in the current geologic era. In most areas east of the Rockies, the likelihood of future damaging earthquakes is currently estimated from the frequencies and sizes of instrumentally recorded earthquakes or earthquakes documented in historical records.

Induced Seismicity
As is the case elsewhere in the world, there is evidence that some central and eastern North America earthquakes have been triggered or caused by human activities that have altered the stress conditions in earth's crust sufficiently to induce faulting. Activities that have induced felt earthquakes in some geologic environments have included impoundment of water behind dams, injection of fluid into the earth's crust, extraction of fluid or gas, and removal of rock in mining or quarrying operations. In much of eastern and central North America, the number of earthquakes suspected of having been induced is much smaller than the number of natural earthquakes, but in some regions, such as the south-central states of the U.S., a significant majority of recent earthquakes are thought by many seismologists to have been human-induced.

Even within areas with many human-induced earthquakes, however, the activity that seems to induce seismicity at one location may be taking place at many other locations without inducing felt earthquakes. In addition, regions with frequent induced earthquakes may also be subject to damaging earthquakes that would have occurred independently of human activity. Making a strong scientific case for a causative link between a particular human activity and a particular sequence of earthquakes typically involves special studies devoted specifically to the question. Such investigations usually address the process by which the suspected triggering activity might have significantly altered stresses in the bedrock at the earthquake source, and they commonly address the ways in which the characteristics of the suspected human-triggered earthquakes differ from the characteristics of natural earthquakes in the region.


MONUMENTAL DISASTER PREPAREDNESS: The Oppidum, The Billionaire Doomsday Bunker - Go Inside The World's Largest Private Apocalypse Shelter; Simulated Sunlight; 10 Years Of Supplies! [PHOTOS]

Terrain cut rendering of the Bunker below the estate

November 10, 2015 - CZECH REPUBLIC
- It stands alone in a quiet valley in the Czech Republic, bordered by a magnificent countryside. The estate is surrounded by high walls, and is not visible at ground level. From the air, the compound appears to be a large administration center. This is The Oppidum, a massive 323,000 square foot property with plans for a spectacular estate. What lies hidden beneath, carved deep in the mountain is the largest residential doomsday shelter in the world.

The Oppidum will be more than an underground bunker for dangerous times. It provides an above-ground residential estate in which the owners can maintain a high standard of living in a secluded area above ground during times of potential danger.

The compound is protected by multiple high-security systems (from high walls and detection sensors to automated defense technology) and strong communications with the outside world.

The residents can enter the shelter by descending through a secret corridor to the bunker, sealing it with a blast door in less than a minute. It enables inhabitants to return quickly to the above-ground residence once the threat has passed.

The below-ground Bunker of The Oppidum will be the area in which inhabitants can be isolated and protected from the threat of war, disease, natural disasters, or personal threats ranging from terrorists to zombies.

Aerial rendering of The Oppidum Complex

The planned luxurious underground compound on two levels includes a total space of 77,500 sf with 13 foot high ceilings. The layout features one large 6,750 sf apartment  and six 1,720 sf apartments.

Among the luxury features are an underground garden with simulated natural light, as well as a spa, swimming pool, cinema, library, and other leisure facilities. There will be offices and a conference room as well as medical and surgical facilities and supplies. Custom private vaults will also be designed to store valuables and personal art collections.

The entire Oppidum complex can be operated from an underground control center, with exclusive access to communications networks internally and to the outside world.

First floor of the underground shelter

Second floor of the underground shelter

The location of The Oppidum is the foundation of its security. The Czech Republic is in central Europe and is surrounded by mountains. The country is not a target of aggression by any other countries or organizations. Any potential conflict in the world is likely to avoid the Czech Republic or, at the very least, reach it at a later stage, which would enable the owners of The Oppidum to arrive at the compound and make preparations.

Construction on the secret facility began in 1984, at the height of the Cold War, as a Classified joint venture between the governments of what were then Czechoslovakia and The Soviet Union. It was built between 1984 and 1994, at a time when global instability and the possibility of weapons of mass destruction were entirely real, just as they are today.

Nuclear proof shelter doors

Because the construction of the facility occurred at a time of heightened world tension, the enormous level of resources used to develop it would be all but impossible to match today. It is extremely unlikely that any government would approve a non-military structure of this size to be built today.

In cases of less catastrophic situations, the bunker will allow the inhabitants to survive natural or man-made disasters, or long-term power outages. The bunker will also be able to provide long-term accommodation for residents – up to 10 years if necessary – without the need for external supplies. This would involve large-scale stocks of non-perishable food and water, along with water purification equipment, medical supplies, surgical facilities, and communication networks with the outside world.

Communications hub design in the below ground bunker

The Oppidum complex will provide its owner with a safe haven for family, friends, business partners, other professionals, and staff in an above-ground residential estate before disaster strikes.

The underground levels of The Oppidum are in a newly reconstructed shell-and-core state.  Communication and other technologies are not yet in place.  They will be incorporated during the customization process.

The above-ground section of The Oppidum is in its original condition, also ready to be customized to the buyer’s wishes. The buyer will be able to choose whether to commission The Oppidum project team to customize the facility or to do the customization of some or all of it independently.

Art gallery vaults design in the below ground bunker

The Oppidum was created by Jakub Zamrazil, a Czech entrepreneur with a successful track record in real estate development, sales and marketing. When Mr Zamrazil first toured the unique former military facility, he was impressed by its massive scale. He saw its potential to be transformed into the ultimate life-assurance solution and named it The Oppidum, from the Latin word meaning the main settlement in an administrative area of ancient Rome. The word was derived from the earlier Latin op-pedum, an “enclosed space”, used to describe fortresses that were constructed in Europe as early as the Iron Age.

Medical facilities design in the below ground bunker
Living quarters design in the below ground bunker

Bar and lounge design in the below ground bunker

Mr Zamrazil joined forces with top professionals in the fields of security and luxury development to put together the concept of the ultimate life-assurance solution for the modern age. General Andor Šándor (Retired) is the security director and guarantor of the Oppidum project. He is a former Chief of the Military Intelligence Service of the Czech Republic, with the rank of Brigadier General.

Since 2003, he has acted as a security consultant for Ruzyně Airport Prague (now renamed Václav Havel Airport Prague); the Prague Metro; the Czech Railways, Road and Motorway Directorate; and other organizations. Currently, General Šándor, together with General Jiří Šedivý, are acting as consultants for upcoming safety drills in Prague, including the largest blackout that the city will have experienced.

According to General Šándor, “The uniqueness of the bunker lies in the fact that it combines state of the art security with luxury and comfort. It is the largest known such facility on earth.”

For a video presentation of the project click here

- Forbes.


GLOBAL VOLCANISM: Could Mount St. Helens Erupt Again - Volcanic Tremors Hint Of Magma Being Injected?!

Earthquakes that occurred before the May 1980 eruption of Mount. St. Helens may have been caused by magma being injected from one chamber to another.
Researchers said more tremors were observed in the area, which could hint of potential eruption.  (Photo : Davgood Kirshot | Pixabay)

- The eruption of Mount St. Helens on May 18, 1980 has claimed 57 lives and caused serious damage to homes and infrastructure.

Now, scientists have revealed that the volcano could possibly erupt again in the future based on findings of a pioneering $3 million study of the volcano's plumbing system.

Geologists who studied the volcano have found a second enormous chamber lying between seven to 23 miles beneath the surface.

This massive pool of molten rock was found connected to a smaller chamber lying directly beneath the volcano.

How these two chambers are connected is helping scientists understand the sequence of events prior to the 1980 eruption, whose strength of explosion destroyed the topmost peaks of the mountain.

Matching the newly discovered magma reservoirs with earthquake data also sheds light on how the deadliest eruption in U.S. history occurred.

The researchers said that the series of tremors that occurred in the months leading to the 1980 eruption may have been caused by magma pumping from the lower to the upper chamber of the volcano, which caused the pressure inside the upper chamber to dramatically increase resulting in the deadly explosion.

"We can only now understand that those earthquakes are connecting those magma reservoirs," said Rice University seismologist Eric Kiser. "They could be an indication that you have migration of fluid between the two bodies."

Reporting the findings of their study at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in Baltimore, Maryland on Nov. 3, the researchers said that more tremors have been observed in the area suggesting that more magma is being injected.

"A cluster of low frequency events, typically associated with injection of magma, occurs at the northwestern boundary of this low Vp column," the researchers reported. "Much of the recorded seismicity between the shallow high Vp/Vs body and deep low Vp column took place in the months preceding and hours following the May 18, 1980 eruption. This may indicate a transient migration of magma between these two reservoirs associated with this eruption."

After the 1980 eruption, the volcano started to erupt again in 2004 but it fell silent in July 2008. Nonetheless, Mount St. Helens is still considered a high risk volcano and is closely monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey. The researchers said that their findings could offer a crucial early warning system of a potential eruption. - Tech Times.

PARADIGM SHIFT: Precursors To The End Of The Petrodollar And The Ultimate Collapse Of The White Supremacy Paradigm - China Moves To Topple The U.S. Dollar, Allows Direct Conversion Between Yuan And Swiss Franc!

A clerk with stacks of Chinese 100-yuan notes at a bank in Suining, southwest China's Sichuan province.Photographer: AFP via Getty Images

November 10, 2015 - CHINA
- China took another step to boost the yuan’s global usage, saying it will start direct trading with the Swiss franc, as the nation pushes its case for reserve-currency status at the International Monetary Fund.

The link will start on Tuesday, the China Foreign Exchange Trade System said in a statement, making the franc the seventh major currency that can bypass a conversion into the U.S. dollar and be directly exchanged for yuan.

The rate will be allowed to fluctuate a maximum 5 percent on either side of a daily fixing, according to CFETS.

“This is an important step in strengthening bilateral economic and trade connections between China and Switzerland,” the People’s Bank of China said in a statement on its website on Monday.

The link will help lower conversion costs and facilitate the use of both currencies in bilateral trade, it added.

The announcement, which confirmed an earlier report, comes as the IMF prepares to meet this month to review its Special Drawing Rights. The executive board of the Washington-based institution will gauge whether the Chinese currency has fulfilled the criterion of being "freely usable," after rejecting its bid in 2010.

The other major currencies that can be directly converted into yuan are the U.S., Australian and New Zealand dollars, the British pound, the Japanese yen and the euro.

The PBOC this year extended Switzerland a 50 billion yuan ($7.9 billion) quota under the Renminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor program, which allows yuan raised offshore to be used to buy securities in China’s domestic markets.

In 2014, the Swiss and Chinese central banks signed a three-year currency-swap agreement that can be used to borrow as much as 150 billion yuan. - Bloomberg.

STAR WARS: The War Off Los Angeles - U.S. Navy Launches Second Test Missile Off Southern California Coast!

A light created by a naval test fire off the Southern California coast was seen across the Southland and Arizona on Saturday evening.
(Eddy Hartenstein/ Los Angeles Times)

- The U.S. Navy said it launched a second -- and final -- missile in a planned exercise Monday afternoon from a submarine off the Southern California coast.

The second test launch of the Trident II (D5) missile from a ballistic submarine in the Pacific Ocean took place Monday afternoon, the Navy said. The blast-off took place to far less fanfare than Saturday night’s launch, which provoked residents from San Francisco to Mexico to take to social media, posting photos of an eerie-looking bluish-green plume smeared above the Pacific.

Speculations were wide-ranging, including rumors of an otherworldly alien UFO visit. In fact, the streak was generated from the Trident missile’s rocket motor.

The Navy later confirmed a ballistic submarine launched an unarmed Trident II (D5) missile in a test flight, but would not define the window of time available for conducting additional launches, nor would it disclose where the exercise was actually taking place.

“It’s important that we test these missiles for our national security,” said John M. Daniels, spokesman for the secretive Strategic Systems Programs office, which oversees the Navy’s nuclear-tipped missile arsenal. “We don’t announce future launches, but this is it for any time soon.”

The Kentucky, the ballistic submarine, conducted the two launches as part of a demonstration and shakedown operation, or DASO, process that certifies the readiness of a submarine’s crew and strategic weapons before returning to operational availability.

It occurs after a submarine has its mid-life nuclear refueling, which involves replacing the expended nuclear fuel in the submarine’s reactor with new fuel. The Kentucky entered Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, Wash., in February 2012 for an overhaul that ended in April.

The Navy is considering posting additional photos -- and possibly video -- of the missile launches after the current exercises are completed, Daniels said, but it has yet to decide.

The Navy’s fleet of 14 ballistic submarines can each carry 24 Trident missiles, each tipped with 14 independently targetable thermonuclear warheads.

The Navy annually tests the Tridents, on the West Coast and on the East Coast, near Florida.

The $31 million missile, built by Lockheed Martin Corp. in Sunnyvale, Calif., has had more than 150 successful launches since its first test in 1989. It is capable of hitting a target 4,000 nautical miles away.

The test on Saturday featured the launch of a missile outfitted with a dummy warhead toward the Kwajalein Atoll, a missile test site that’s part of the Marshall Islands in the western Pacific.

While the risk of nuclear confrontation between the United States and Russia declined after the 1991 fall of the Soviet Union, it has never gone away.

The U.S. military’s nuclear weapons strategy rests on a triad of delivery systems — bombers, submarines and land-based missiles — developed early in the Cold War to deliver warheads anywhere in the world.

The Pentagon recently embarked on a $355-billion program for modernizing each aging leg of the U.S. nuclear triad over the next decade.

The submarine missile test came late Saturday after Defense Secretary Ashton Carter addressed a defense forum at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley about the U.S. “adapting our operational posture and contingency plans” to deter Russia’s “aggression.”

“We do not seek a cold, let alone a hot, war with Russia,” he said to the forum. “We do not seek to make Russia an enemy. But make no mistake; the United States will defend our interests, our allies, the principled international order, and the positive future it affords us all.” - LA Times.