Sunday, April 10, 2016

MASS FISH DIE-OFFS: Migratory Patterns And Disaster Precursors - Thousands Of Dead Fish Found On Beach In Samoa?!


April 10, 2016 - SAMOA - It was a horrific scene according to villagers, where thousands of dead juvenile fish washed ashore and were laid out on one side of Amouli Beach.

Employees of the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) were dispatched to the area after concerned villagers called. Samoa News spoke to two DMWR employees who confirmed that samples of the water have been shipped off island for analysis and testing, to determine if there are nitrites, or ammonia in the water — pollutants that may have contributed to Wednesday's unexpected event.

The group of dead fish included species of rabbitfish (lo), squirrelfish (malau), and goatfish (i'a sina).

DMWR's Alama Tua explained that DMWR staff biologists would test the fish to determine the cause of death.

The American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency (AS-EPA) is also on board, assisting DMWR in trying to find out what happened. - Samoa News.



GEOLOGICAL UPHEAVALS: Apocalyptic Full-Scale Landslide In Ulyanovsk, Russia - Swallows Up Roadway, Power Poles, Utility Buildings And Trees! [PHOTOS + VIDEO]

© 1IL.ru

April 10, 2016 - RUSSIA - Apocalyptic full-scale landslide in Ulyanovsk as several hundred square meters and, obviously, a few thousand cubic meters of soil literally collapsed in one day.

This is the first full-scale landslide in this area of the Volga in the last 57 years.

The collapse of the soil started on April 5, 2016 at about 8:00am.

And it is still ongoing.


The landslide is most probably due to an oversaturated soil after the heavy rain that fell on the area during last days.


© 1IL.ru

© 1IL.ru

© 1IL.ru

However, many residents blame road workers and the government, who have never controlled the landslide section of the road.

The area is now under close control and autorities try to calm down all frightened residents.


WATCH: Massive landslide in Russia.




The landslide swallowed everything on its path: The roadway, power poles, utility buildings, trees.

Luckily the ground collapse didn't engulf any cars or people. According to environmentalists the land slides 20 cm every single hour.

That is insane! - Strange Sounds.






 

MONUMENTAL EARTH CHANGES: Extreme Weather Anomalies In The United States - From Warmest December On Record To Blizzards, Wild Winter Sets Records Across The Northeastern Region!


April 10, 2016 - UNITED STATES - From the warmest December on record to the "Blizzard of 2016" and snow in April, the winter of 2015-2016 put itself in the record books across the northeastern United States.

The transition to a strong El Niño brought a much different weather pattern to the region compared to the winter of 2014-2015 which brought copious amounts of cold and snow.

The winter of 2015-2016 impacted the northeastern United States differently based on location, causing some locations to end with below-normal snowfall and above-normal snowfall in others.

Warmest December on record hinders lake-effect snow season

The AccuWeather winter forecast for the Northeast and Great Lakes highlighted a mild start to the winter season as El Niño strengthened in the equatorial Pacific. The milder pattern would also lead to a weak lake-effect snow season across the Great Lakes.

"We were certain that the winter cold would be less persistent and less frequent compared to last year," AccuWeather Long Range Meteorologist Paul Pastelok said.

The mild start to the season failed to produce many days of air cold enough to produce significant bands of lake-effect snow prior to 2016.

"The mild pattern during November and December took over across the eastern United States and allowed very few lake-effect events to occur at the beginning of the season," Pastelok said.

While November ended as one of the warmest months on record for portions of the Northeast, December not only became the warmest month on record across the Northeast, but shattered the previous record.

Temperatures from Boston to New York City, Washington, D.C. and places in-between averaged more than 10 degrees Fahrenheit above normal for the month. Some locations broke their previous December average temperature by 3 to 5 degrees.

"The highlight of December was the warmth on Christmas Eve," AccuWeather Meteorologist Brett Rossio said. The mild start to the beginning of the weather season helped to break a 117-year-old record for the latest measurable snowfall in Buffalo, New York. The new record is Dec. 18. The record for the latest date for an inch of snow fell just shy of the record set on Jan. 4, 1937 when Buffalo received 1.9 inches of snow on New Year's Day.

As the calendar shifted into 2016, enough cold air arrived for several lake-effect events to unfold, however, there lacked a large number of significant lake-effect storms to help erase the snowfall deficit from November and December.

"While the cold hit during January and February, there were a few big lake-effect events but most locations still received less than half of the normal snow typically received from lake-effect storms," Pastelok said.

Cleveland, Ohio, for example, received only 33 inches of snow this season, exactly half of the normal snowfall of 66 inches. Buffalo, New York, received around 52 inches of snow, more than 40 inches below the normal of 93 inches.

With much of the interior Northeast relying on lake-effect snow as their main snowpack for each season, the winter season ended with below-normal snowfall. The same was not the case along the Interstate-95 corridor as a single storm produced more snow than some locations receive for an entire season.

Blizzard of 2016 breaks mid-Atlantic daily snowfall records

The most memorable snowstorm of the winter season occurred during Jan. 22 and Jan. 23 across the mid-Atlantic states and became known as the Blizzard of 2016. This powerful storm led to widespread snow totals of 1 to 3 feet, strong wind gusts between 30 and 50 mph and shut down major cities for days.

The major cities of Washington, D.C., Baltimore, New York City and Philadelphia shattered daily records for the most snow on Jan. 23.

This storm produced a typical entire season's worth of snowfall in a span of one and a half days across many locations along the Interstate-95 corridor.

"The big snowstorm from Jan. 22-23 across the mid-Atlantic led to portions of the mid-Atlantic toward New York City receiving above-normal snowfall for the season," Pastelok said.

For example, Philadelphia, received 22.4 inches of snow from the Blizzard of 2016, right at the normal of around 22 inches for the season.

If that storm failed to occur, the entire region would have received very little snow.

"New York City to Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. only received about 5 inches of snow outside of the Blizzard of 2016," AccuWeather Meteorologist Eric Leister said.

April snow, cold enough to break the least snowiest year on record

Outside of the lake-effect snow belts and locations outside of the Blizzard of 2016, snow was little to be seen. "Little storms brought a significant amount of snow across portions of the interior Northeast, especially from northern and central Pennsylvania into portions of southeastern and eastern New York state," AccuWeather Meteorologist Brian Thompson said.

Williamsport, Pennsylvania, failed to receive 10 inches of snow while Albany, New York, failed to reach a foot and a half.

However, as many were looking forward to an early spring, cold and snow returned to the Northeast during the first two weeks of April.

As the polar vortex shifted south toward the Hudson Bay, shots of colder air plunged across the Northeastern states and opened the door for a few snowstorms to sweep from the Great Lakes to the mid-Atlantic coast.

The cold air and fresh snowpack caused some locations to set new record lows during early April. For others, enough snow fell to prevent this season from being the least snowiest on record.

Williamsport received enough snow on April 9 to fall short of the record for least amount of snow in a winter year. Williamsport has accumulated 7.7 inches this winter, slightly more than the current record of 7.0 inches set in the winter of 1988-1989.

Albany, New York, will mark this winter as the least snowiest on record at 16.9 inches. The previous record was 19.0 inches set in the winter of 1988-1989.

Further confirmation from local National Weather Service offices will determine which and if any locations received the least amount of snow this winter season on record.

The official winter year ends on June 30.

The chance for any additional snowstorms across the Northeast is unlikely until fall as milder air will return and stay for the remainder of April starting this week.


- AccuWeather.




 

GEOLOGICAL UPHEAVALS: Sinkholes Keep Popping Up Across The United States - Massive Sinkhole Opens Up For Second Time Near Baltimore, Maryland!


April 10, 2016 - MARYLAND, UNITED STATES - It has downed large trees, a large portion of a chain-link fence and virtually anything else in its path.

It's a 15-by-40 foot sinkhole, and Lucy Miller says it's creeping closer to her house every day.

"It's moving, and it's moving towards my property and I don't want these trees to all come down and I don't want anybody to get hurt," Miller said. "That's my problem."

Miller and her husband, Jerry, approached the nearby Lynn Hill Apartments about the problem and were told the hole is on county land.

The county said it was the state, because it sits along a state road, and the state pointed back to the apartment complex as the owner of the land.

"It seems that someone could go to the records bureau some place and pull out the deed to see who owns the property, but it seems to be too much of a bother for somebody or they just don't want to admit it," Jerry Miller said.


WATCH: Massive sinkhole opens up in Linthicum.




Adding to the Millers' frustration is the fact that it took years for them to get someone to fix the first sinkhole here years ago.

This is now the second time they've had to try to get to the bottom of the mystery surrounding who is responsible for the property, the runoff that created it and the risk it poses to the many children who live in the apartments above it.

"Well, they fixed it before," Lucy said. "There was a big hole there before. Somebody fixed it, but they didn't fix it right, because it came back again."

"Nobody knows," Jerry Miller said. "The apartments said they didn't fix it. The state said they didn't fix it, but somebody fixed it."

While the ownership of the massive sinkhole remains a mystery, the Millers say it could be a real tragedy if tons of dirt and soil should collapse on top of someone risking their life. - ABC 2.






PLANETARY TREMORS: Very Strong 6.6 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Afghanistan - Strong Tremors Felt In India And Pakistan Capitals! [MAPS + TECTONIC SUMMARY]

USGS earthquake location.

April 10, 2016 - AFGHANISTAN - A powerful earthquake has struck the border area between Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, with tremors felt in Delhi and Islamabad.

The quake was intially measured at magnitude-6.6 and depth 210km by the USGS, though there were no immediate reports of casualties.

Reports from across South Asia described buildings swaying for more than a minute with tremors felt in the Pakistani city of Lahore some 630km from the epicentre.


Pakistani official Arif Ullah said the magnitude-7.1 quake was centered near Afghanistan's border with Tajikistan. Germany's GFZ Research Center for Geosciences set the quake's magnitude at 6.5.


USGS shakemap intensity.


Tremors were also felt in the Indian capital and in Kashmir, witnesses said, with some people working in high-rise buildings in the Indian capital rushing into the streets. The Delhi underground system was also halted briefly, commuters told the NDTV channel.

In Kabul, Omar Mohammadi, a spokesman for the Afghanistan National Disaster Management Authority, said officials were collecting information but no reports of casualties or damage had been received so far. - Independent.



Seismotectonics of the Himalaya and Vicinity

Seismicity in the Himalaya dominantly results from the continental collision of the India and Eurasia plates, which are converging at a relative rate of 40-50 mm/yr. Northward underthrusting of India beneath Eurasia generates numerous earthquakes and consequently makes this area one of the most seismically hazardous regions on Earth. The surface expression of the plate boundary is marked by the foothills of the north-south trending Sulaiman Range in the west, the Indo-Burmese Arc in the east and the east-west trending Himalaya Front in the north of India.

The India-Eurasia plate boundary is a diffuse boundary, which in the region near the north of India, lies within the limits of the Indus-Tsangpo (also called the Yarlung-Zangbo) Suture to the north and the Main Frontal Thrust to the south. The Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone is located roughly 200 km north of the Himalaya Front and is defined by an exposed ophiolite chain along its southern margin. The narrow (less than 200km) Himalaya Front includes numerous east-west trending, parallel structures. This region has the highest rates of seismicity and largest earthquakes in the Himalaya region, caused mainly by movement on thrust faults. Examples of significant earthquakes, in this densely populated region, caused by reverse slip movement include the 1934 M8.1 Bihar, the 1905 M7.5 Kangra and the 2005 M7.6 Kashmir earthquakes. The latter two resulted in the highest death tolls for Himalaya earthquakes seen to date, together killing over 100,000 people and leaving millions homeless. The largest instrumentally recorded Himalaya earthquake occurred on 15th August 1950 in Assam, eastern India. This M8.6 right-lateral, strike-slip, earthquake was widely felt over a broad area of central Asia, causing extensive damage to villages in the epicentral region.


USGS plate tectonics for the region.

The Tibetan Plateau is situated north of the Himalaya, stretching approximately 1000km north-south and 2500km east-west, and is geologically and tectonically complex with several sutures which are hundreds of kilometer-long and generally trend east-west. The Tibetan Plateau is cut by a number of large (greater than 1000km) east-west trending, left-lateral, strike-slip faults, including the long Kunlun, Haiyuan, and the Altyn Tagh. Right-lateral, strike-slip faults (comparable in size to the left-lateral faults), in this region include the Karakorum, Red River, and Sagaing. Secondary north-south trending normal faults also cut the Tibetan Plateau. Thrust faults are found towards the north and south of the Tibetan Plateau. Collectively, these faults accommodate crustal shortening associated with the ongoing collision of the India and Eurasia plates, with thrust faults accommodating north south compression, and normal and strike-slip accommodating east-west extension.

Along the western margin of the Tibetan Plateau, in the vicinity of south-eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan, the India plate translates obliquely relative to the Eurasia plate, resulting in a complex fold-and-thrust belt known as the Sulaiman Range. Faulting in this region includes strike-slip, reverse-slip and oblique-slip motion and often results in shallow, destructive earthquakes. The active, left-lateral, strike-slip Chaman fault is the fastest moving fault in the region. In 1505, a segment of the Chaman fault near Kabul, Afghanistan, ruptured causing widespread destruction. In the same region the more recent 30 May 1935, M7.6 Quetta earthquake, which occurred in the Sulaiman Range in Pakistan, killed between 30,000 and 60,000 people.

On the north-western side of the Tibetan Plateau, beneath the Pamir-Hindu Kush Mountains of northern Afghanistan, earthquakes occur at depths as great as 200 km as a result of remnant lithospheric subduction. The curved arc of deep earthquakes found in the Hindu Kush Pamir region indicates the presence of a lithospheric body at depth, thought to be remnants of a subducting slab. Cross-sections through the Hindu Kush region suggest a near vertical northerly-dipping subducting slab, whereas cross-sections through the nearby Pamir region to the east indicate a much shallower dipping, southerly subducting slab. Some models suggest the presence of two subduction zones; with the Indian plate being subducted beneath the Hindu Kush region and the Eurasian plate being subducted beneath the Pamir region. However, other models suggest that just one of the two plates is being subducted and that the slab has become contorted and overturned in places.

Shallow crustal earthquakes also occur in this region near the Main Pamir Thrust and other active Quaternary faults. The Main Pamir Thrust, north of the Pamir Mountains, is an active shortening structure. The northern portion of the Main Pamir Thrust produces many shallow earthquakes, whereas its western and eastern borders display a combination of thrust and strike-slip mechanisms. On the 18 February 1911, the M7.4 Sarez earthquake ruptured in the Central Pamir Mountains, killing numerous people and triggering a landside, which blocked the Murghab River.

Further north, the Tian Shan is a seismically active intra-continental mountain belt, which extends 2500 km in an ENE-WNW orientation north of the Tarim Basin. This belt is defined by numerous east-west trending thrust faults, creating a compressional basin and range landscape. It is generally thought that regional stresses associated with the collision of the India and Eurasia plates are responsible for faulting in the region. The region has had three major earthquakes (greater than M7.6) at the start of the 20th Century, including the 1902 Atushi earthquake, which killed an estimated 5,000 people. The range is cut through in the west by the 700-km-long, northwest-southeast striking, Talas-Ferghana active right-lateral, strike-slip fault system. Though the system has produced no major earthquakes in the last 250 years, paleo-seismic studies indicate that it has the potential to produce M7.0+ earthquakes and it is thought to represent a significant hazard.

The northern portion of the Tibetan Plateau itself is largely dominated by the motion on three large left-lateral, strike-slip fault systems; the Altyn Tagh, Kunlun and Haiyuan. The Altyn Tagh fault is the longest of these strike slip faults and it is thought to accommodate a significant portion of plate convergence. However, this system has not experienced significant historical earthquakes, though paleoseismic studies show evidence of prehistoric M7.0-8.0 events. Thrust faults link with the Altyn Tagh at its eastern and western termini. The Kunlun Fault, south of the Altyn Tagh, is seismically active, producing large earthquakes such as the 8th November 1997, M7.6 Manyi earthquake and the 14th November 2001, M7.8 Kokoxili earthquake. The Haiyuan Fault, in the far north-east, generated the 16 December 1920, M7.8 earthquake that killed approximately 200,000 people and the 22 May 1927 M7.6 earthquake that killed 40,912.

The Longmen Shan thrust belt, along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, is an important structural feature and forms a transitional zone between the complexly deformed Songpan-Garze Fold Belt and the relatively undeformed Sichuan Basin. On 12 May 2008, the thrust belt produced the reverse slip, M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, killing over 87,000 people and causing billions of US dollars in damages and landslides which dammed several rivers and lakes.

Southeast of the Tibetan Plateau are the right-lateral, strike-slip Red River and the left-lateral, strike-slip Xiangshuihe-Xiaojiang fault systems. The Red River Fault experienced large scale, left-lateral ductile shear during the Tertiary period before changing to its present day right-lateral slip rate of approximately 5 mm/yr. This fault has produced several earthquakes greater than M6.0 including the 4 January 1970, M7.5 earthquake in Tonghai which killed over 10,000 people. Since the start of the 20th century, the Xiangshuihe-Xiaojiang Fault system has generated several M7.0+ earthquakes including the M7.5 Luhuo earthquake which ruptured on the 22 April 1973. Some studies suggest that due to the high slip rate on this fault, future large earthquakes are highly possible along the 65km stretch between Daofu and Qianning and the 135km stretch that runs through Kangding.

Shallow earthquakes within the Indo-Burmese Arc, predominantly occur on a combination of strike-slip and reverse faults, including the Sagaing, Kabaw and Dauki faults. Between 1930 and 1956, six M7.0+ earthquakes occurred near the right-lateral Sagaing Fault, resulting in severe damage in Myanmar including the generation of landslides, liquefaction and the loss of 610 lives. Deep earthquakes (200km) have also been known to occur in this region, these are thought to be due to the subduction of the eastwards dipping, India plate, though whether subduction is currently active is debated. Within the pre-instrumental period, the large Shillong earthquake occurred on the 12 June 1897, causing widespread destruction. - USGS.




RATTLE & HUM: Mysterious Sounds Heard Across The Planet - Reports Of Strange Inexplicable Tremors In Eastern North Carolina Attributed To Sonic Booms From Military Activity?!

What appears to be a sonic boom wave caught on radar.
© WECT

April 10, 2016 - NORTH CAROLINA, UNITED STATES - Did you feel a bit of a shake Friday afternoon? You're not alone.

WECT received several emails and messages on social media about a possible tremor in the Myrtle Grove area, as well as in Leland.

However, the United States Geological Survey's website showed no earthquake activity in North Carolina.

Our First Alert meteorologists did manage to see what appears to be remnants of a sonic boom wave on radar just off the coast of the Cape Fear region.

Steven Pfaff with NOAA released the following statement regarding the shake:
I've attached a radar loop which shows chaff from military aircraft off the Cape Fear coast. The chaff is dropped from aircraft doing maneuvers and is often detected on weather surveillance radar since the chaff (little strips of aluminum) behaves like rainfall. Usually the radar signature for chaff becomes oriented into thin lines as the individual pieces are carried downwind of where they were released.

Thus the radar indicates there were military aircraft operating off the coast and some of these aircraft are likely able to break the sound barrier creating the sonic boom sensation that was felt by many across Southeast NC today.
So, whether it was a sonic boom from military aircraft or an infamous seneca gun is anybody's guess.

- WECT 6.






 

PLANETARY TREMORS: Strong Magnitude 5.9 Earthquake Strikes Off Indonesian Coast - No Tsunami Warning! [MAPS + TECTONIC SUMMARY]

USGS earthquake location.

April 10, 2016 - INDONESIA - A 5.9 magnitude earthquake has struck off the coast of Indonesia, the country's National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB) said on Sunday.

The earthquake took place in the Indian Ocean, over 60 kilometers (37 miles) off the coast of Bengkulu, a province in Indonesia's southwestern Sumatra island, the agency said.

While the earthquake's epicenter was recorded at 16 kilometers below ocean surface, the BNPB has not issued a potential tsunami warning.


USGS shakemap intensity.

The shocks were felt by many Sumatrans, the BNPB said, adding that no damage to buildings has occurred.

Indonesia is a part of the so-called Pacific Ring of Fire quake zone, where about 90 percent of the world's earthquakes occur. - Sputnik.


Seismotectonics of the Sumatra Region

The plate boundary southwest of Sumatra is part of a long tectonic collision zone that extends over 8000 km from Papua in the east to the Himalayan front in the west. The Sumatra-Andaman portion of the collision zone forms a subduction zone megathrust plate boundary, the Sunda-Java trench, which accommodates convergence between the Indo-Australia and Sunda plates. This convergence is responsible for the intense seismicity and volcanism in Sumatra. The Sumatra Fault, a major transform structure that bisects Sumatra, accommodates the northwest-increasing lateral component of relative plate motion.

Relative plate motion between the Indo-Australia and Sunda plates is rapid, decreasing from roughly 63 mm/year near the southern tip of Sumatra (Australia relative to Sunda) to 44 mm/year north of Andaman Islands (India relative to Sunda) and rotating counterclockwise to the northwest, so that relative motion near Jakarta is nearly trench-normal but becomes nearly trench-parallel near Myanmar. As a result of the rotation in relative motion along the strike of the arc and the interaction of multiple tectonic plates, several interrelated tectonic elements compose the Sumatra-Andaman plate boundary. Most strain accumulation and release occurs along the Sunda megathrust of the main subduction zone, where lithosphere of the subducting Indo-Australia plate is in contact with the overlying Sunda plate down to a depth of 60 km. Strain release associated with deformation within the subducting slab is evidenced by deeper earthquakes that extend to depths of less than 300 km on Sumatra and 150 km or less along the Andaman Islands. The increasingly oblique convergence between these two plates moving northwest along the arc is accommodated by crustal seismicity along a series of transform and normal faults. East of the Andaman Islands, back- arc spreading in the Andaman Sea produces a zone of distributed normal and strike-slip faulting. Similar to the Sumatran Fault, the Sagaing Fault near Myanmar also accommodates the strike-slip component of oblique plate motion. Plate-boundary related deformation is also not restricted to the subduction zone and overriding plate: the subducting Indo-Australian plate actually comprises two somewhat independent plates (India and Australia), with small amounts of motion relative to one another, that are joined along a broad, actively-deforming region producing seismicity up to several hundred kilometers west of the trench. This deformation is exemplified by the recent April 2012 earthquake sequence, which includes the April 11 M 8.6 and M 8.2 strike-slip events and their subsequent aftershocks.



USGS plate tectonics for the region.


Paleoseismic studies using coral reefs as a proxy for relative land level changes associated with earthquake displacement suggest that the Sunda arc has repeatedly ruptured during relatively large events in the past, with records extending as far back as the 10th century. In northern Simeulue Island, the southern terminus of the 2004 megathrust earthquake rupture area, a cluster of megathrust earthquakes occurred over a 56 year period between A.D. 1390 and 1455, resulting in uplift substantially greater than that caused by the 2004 event. Studies that look at large sheeted deposits of sand on land interpreted as the transport of debris from a tsunami wave also indicate that this region has experienced significant tsunamis in the past centuries, albeit infrequently.

Prior to 2004, the most recent megathrust earthquakes along the Sumatran-Andaman plate boundary were in 1797 (M 8.7-8.9), 1833 (M 8.9-9.1) and 1861 (M8.5). Since 2004, much of the Sunda megathrust between the northern Andaman Islands and Enggano Island, a distance of more than 2,000 km, has ruptured in a series of large subduction zone earthquakes - most rupturing the plate boundary south of Banda Aceh. The great M 9.1 earthquake of December 26, 2004, which produced a devastating tsunami, ruptured much of the boundary between Myanmar and Simeulue Island offshore Banda Aceh. Immediately to the south of the great 2004 earthquake, the M 8.6 Nias Island earthquake of March 28, 2005 ruptured a 400-km section between Simeulue and the Batu Islands. Farther south in the Mentawai islands, two earthquakes on September 12, 2007 of M 8.5 and M 7.9 occurred in the southern portion of the estimated 1797 and 1833 ruptures zone, which extends from approximately Enggano Island to the northern portion of Siberut Island. Smaller earthquakes have also been locally important: a M 7.6 rupture within the subducting plate caused considerable damage in Padang in 2009, and a M 7.8 rupture on October 25, 2010 occurred on the shallow portion of the megathrust to the west of the Mentawai Islands, and caused a substantial tsunami on the west coast of those islands.

In addition to the current seismic hazards along this portion of the Sunda arc, this region is also recognized as having one of the highest volcanic hazards in the world. One of the most dramatic eruptions in human history was the Krakatau eruption on August 26-27, 1883, a volcano just to the southeast of the island of Sumatra, which resulted in over 35, 000 casualties.

Subduction and seismicity along the plate boundary adjacent to Java is fundamentally different from that of the Sumatran-Andaman section. Relative motion along the Java arc is trench-normal (approximately 65-70 mm/year) and does not exhibit the same strain partitioning and back-arc strike- slip faulting that are observed along the Sumatra margin. Neither has the Java subduction zone hosted similar large magnitude megathrust events to those of its neighbor, at least in documented history. Although this region is not as seismically active as the Sumatra region, the Java arc has hosted low to intermediate-magnitude extensional earthquakes and deep-focus (300-700 km) events and exhibits a similar if not higher volcanic hazard. This arc has also hosted two large, shallow tsunami earthquakes in the recent past which resulted in high tsunami run-ups along the southern Java coast. - USGS.